Flashcards in 4 - Controlling the Economy Deck (56):
What did Mao notice the peasants showed?
'Spontaneous tendency towards capitalism'
How long did Mao think it would take China to develop into a socialist society?
Who favoured a slower, more measured approach with regard to the economy than Mao suggested?
Liu Shaoqi and Bo Yibo
What were Mutual-Aid teams and when were they promoted?
Groupings of around 10 families which allowed them to share labour, tools and animals. Only poorest allowed to participate. Promoted by CPC in 1951
What was the second stage of agricultural collectivisation and when was it started?
Agricultural Producers Co-operatives (APC) grouped 30-50 families who pooled land and labour. Launched 1952-53
How was profit shared at the end of the year in APCs?
On a 'land-share' and 'labour-share' basis. Wealthier peasants made most as they owned most of the land
What happened 1953-55?
A series of confusing and contradictory directives from Mao
What did Mao do in spring 1953?
Applied the breaks - campaign against 'rash advance'
What happened when things stabilised after Mao halted rapid collectivisation?
'Spontaneous capitalism' reappearedn
What did Mao do to prevent 'spontaneous capitalism'?
Increased pace - campaign against 'rash retreat'
Why was the 1954 harvest significant?
It was poor - led to food riots in cities
What did Mao launch in January 1955?
Stop, contract, develop campaign - decided there should no further APC expansion for 18 months
When did Mao decide to push forward with collectivisation yet again?
What did Mao launch in late 1955?
'Higher stage' APCs
How many households were there in each'Higher stage' APC?
What percentage of 'higher stage' APC land was private owned (by the peasants)?
How were 'higher stage' APCs made fairer?
'land-share' reduced and 'labour-share' increased. More incentive to work hard
How were wealthier peasants forced to join APCs?
State loans by the government banks withheld
How many people belonged to APCs in July 1955?
How many households belonged to APCs in January 1956?
75 million - 63% of the population
What percentage of peasant households farmed as individuals by the end of 1956?
What did Mao say about collectivisation at the end of 1956?
That it had been achieved 15 years early
What were the consequences of collectivisation?
CPC control strengthened, split the CPC regarding pace of change, some argue peasants were better fed as a result, others say they experienced hardship
How much did agricultural production grow between 1953-57?
How much did agricultural production grow in 1957?
When was the First Five Year Plan launched?
In 1922, what percentage of Chinese coal mines were in foreign hands?
Why was China's balance of payments constantly in deficit and what did Mao say would solve this?
Due to the Chinese economy being unable to supply consumer goods, Mao said they need to become self sufficient - to not import foreign manufactured goods
What was the focus of the First Five Year Plan?
'Heavy' industry - steel, iron, energy, transport and communications, industrial machinery, and chemicals
What were 'patriotic savings' campaigns?
A means by which ordinary people were made to put their money into banks, helped to finance industrial investment
How were people made to save money?
Consumer goods limited, nothing to spend money on
What were 'government procurement quotas' and why were they used?
A of tax on peasants in the form of food. Used to feed the growing urban population and keep their wages low
What were some problems of the First Five Year Plan?
Much expensive equipment destroyed due to lack of training, emphasis on quantity not quality, state planners ignorant of basic procedure, competition for scarce resources between private and public sector
How much coal was produced in 1957?
130 million tonnes (target of 113 million tonnes)
How many trucks were produced in 1957?
7,500 (4,000 target)
How many locomotives were produced in 1957?
167 (200 target)
How much did industrial production grow during the First Five Year plan?
What were consequences the plan?
Workers had greater job security, restrictions on travel, living standards rose (however poor compared to other countries), had to pay back high interest loads to USSR, all private commercial and industrial enterprise was converted to state-private enterprises (completed across China in Jan 1956)
How many people lived in urban areas in 1949 and what had this increased to by 1957?
57 million, increased to 100 million
What did Mao say when he launched the Hundred Flowers campaign?
'Let a hundred flowers blossom, let a hundred schools of thought contend'
Why did Mao distrust intellectuals?
Because those in higher education prior to 1949 were mostly from landlord or bourgeois families, or were educated by foreign universities - their class origins were questionable
Why was Mao cautious about his actions towards intellectuals?
Because he knew he needed them to develop China - most educated people stayed in China after the communist takeover
What were intellectuals taught at 'revolutionary colleges'?
Cadres taught them the works of Mao, Lenin and Marx
How did Mao demonstrate the causes of criticising the party?
Using Hu Feng
Who was Hu Feng?
A writer who said CPC control stifled creativity and art. Charged with being a GMD agent, expelled from writers' union. Imprisoned in 1955 and released only in 1979
What were 'Hu Feng elements' and what happened to them?
Anyone who openly expressed their feelings about the CPC, Mao aimed to remove them from China
What happened during the anti-Hu Feng media campaign in 1955?
2,000 of Feng's supporters were criticised, 100 of whom were arrested and forced to self criticise
Why could Mao not launch the Hundred Flowers in 1956?
Lacked full Politburo support - they thought criticisms would undermine their authority, such as in Hungary(1956)
When was Mao's speech 'On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People' and what did he say?
February 1957. 'Let a hundred flowers blossom, let a hundred schools of thought contend"
What did Mao do in spring 1957?
Called himself the 'wandering lobbyist' and set off on a three week train journey through Eastern China
When did the Politburo sanction the Hundred Flowers?
When was the Hundred Flowers campaign officially launched?
What happened when the campaign started?
Intellectuals criticised the communist system in the press, magazines, and at rallies
What did Mao do in mid-May?
Attacked 'revisionists' within the party for working with anti-party 'rightists' to undermine the regime with their 'wild attacks'
When was Mao ready to launch a counter-attack against the 'poisonous weeds'?