8 - Impact of the Cultural Revolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8 - Impact of the Cultural Revolution Deck (39):
1

How many people were killed as a result of the Cultural Revolution?

500k official estimates, 850k in reality

2

What happened to food supplies in 1967 in Shanghai?

Fell dangerously low, due to street fighting and strikes - Shanghai virtually cut off from the rest of China

3

Whats did people do in the workplace with regard to Mao?

Bowed by his portrait three times in the morning, asking him for instructions for the day ahead, and repeated this after they had finished work

4

What happened to industrial output in 1967?

Fell by 13%

5

What happened to the economy 1968-71

Declined further in 1968, in 1969 level back to 1966 levels and in 1971 established steady growth that had been achieved in the mid 60s

6

What fraction of homes in Beijing were searched by the Red Guards in the autumn of 1966?

1/4 to 1/3

7

Which peasants were most likely to get involved with 'revolutionary action'?

Those closest to cities

8

What fraction of 'rural disorder' between 1966-68 was within 50km/30miled of cities?

2/3

9

What happened to grain production 1966-69?

Fell in both 1966 and 1967, dropped even further in 1968 however by 1969 they had reached the 1966 levels and continued to grow into the 1970s

10

How did Wang Su and Andrew Walder say the Cultural Revolution effected the countryside?

750k-1.25mil dead, 36 million suffered political persecution

11

When did the emphasis of healthcare change?

In 1966, to the countryside

12

When were barefoot doctors introduced and what were they?

1968. Paramedics with less training than qualified doctors eg Jung Chang

13

What happened to many teachers at Beijing University on 18th August 1966?

Dragged out their classes, beaten, faces blackened and forced to wear dunce's caps. Violence quickly spread to other cities

14

When were all universities closed and when did they reopen?

Closed in summer 1966 and reopened in spring 1967

15

How many young people were sent for rustication in 1968-76?

Over 12 million

16

When did Mao say 'the more books you read the more stupid you become?

1965

17

Why did the disruption to education damage China in the long term?

Many of the youth became cynical, disillusioned and lacked ambition. Experiences in countryside made them unable to swallow idea of communist euphoria

18

What reforms were made to schools after the Cultural Revolution?

Fewer examinations, focus on practical work and sciences rather than scholar content. Pupils required to undertake two months of labour per year to complete their courses

19

Who was made authority over cultural life after the revolution and what did this mean?

Jiang Qing. Only allowed 'revolutionary' plays, traditional and foreign art and literature were banned. Libraries and museums were closed and had books and artefacts destroyed or dispersed

20

Why did Jiang Qing single out targets?

Wanted to remove any evidence of her past, as an actress in the 1930s

21

What did the CRG, led by Qing order Red Guards to do after travelling from Beijing to Shandong?

Desecrate the Confucius museum, it symbolised traditional culture in China. 'Confucius and co' became a label for everything that belonged to old Chinese culture

22

Why was it a crime to show respect to your elders?

Due to attacks on Confucian principles

23

How many people died at the hands of Kang Sheng?

14k in Yunnan, 350k arrested in Mongolia of which 89k beaten and further 16k killed

24

What percentage of provincial and regional officials were purged?

70%, including 4 out of 6 Regional Party Firsr Secretaries

25

What percentage of higher ranking officials lost their jobs at a national level?

60%

26

How many of the 1966 Politburo survived the purges?

9 out of 23

27

What percentage of party bureaucracy were labelled 'revisionists' or 'taking capitalist roads'?

20%

28

How many cadres were sent to May 7th Cadre Schools?

3 million

29

When did Mao's focus change from destruction of old old to creation of new?

In 1967-68

30

What were conditions for old Red Guards being taken back into the CPC?

If they could demonstrate they were 'worker peasant soldier'

31

When were the changes to the party confirmed?

Central Committee in October 1968 and Party Congress 1969

32

How many delegates to Congress were there and how many from them were from the PLA?

1,500 2/3 from PLA

33

How much of the new Central Committee were former PLA members?

45%

34

Why did Mao like the new Party and Committee members?

Unlikely to be independent thinkers, likely to be slavish adherents of Mao Zedong thought

35

What was the Politburo replaced by?

Small Standing Committee consisting of Mao, Lin Biao, Zhou Enlai, Chen Boda and Kang Sheng

36

How old was Mao in 1969?

76 years old

37

What did Mao call the Cultural Revolution in 1969?

"A great and decisive victory"

38

What were the factions and power groups after the Cultural Revolution?

Lin Biao and the PLA, Jiang Qing and the Shanghai Radicals, Zhou Enlai and the bureaucracy

39

How many people died as a result of the Revolution in Mongolia?

67,000, Xizang and Sichuan saw many thousands dead also