Flashcards in 8 - Impact of the Cultural Revolution Deck (39):
How many people were killed as a result of the Cultural Revolution?
500k official estimates, 850k in reality
What happened to food supplies in 1967 in Shanghai?
Fell dangerously low, due to street fighting and strikes - Shanghai virtually cut off from the rest of China
Whats did people do in the workplace with regard to Mao?
Bowed by his portrait three times in the morning, asking him for instructions for the day ahead, and repeated this after they had finished work
What happened to industrial output in 1967?
Fell by 13%
What happened to the economy 1968-71
Declined further in 1968, in 1969 level back to 1966 levels and in 1971 established steady growth that had been achieved in the mid 60s
What fraction of homes in Beijing were searched by the Red Guards in the autumn of 1966?
1/4 to 1/3
Which peasants were most likely to get involved with 'revolutionary action'?
Those closest to cities
What fraction of 'rural disorder' between 1966-68 was within 50km/30miled of cities?
What happened to grain production 1966-69?
Fell in both 1966 and 1967, dropped even further in 1968 however by 1969 they had reached the 1966 levels and continued to grow into the 1970s
How did Wang Su and Andrew Walder say the Cultural Revolution effected the countryside?
750k-1.25mil dead, 36 million suffered political persecution
When did the emphasis of healthcare change?
In 1966, to the countryside
When were barefoot doctors introduced and what were they?
1968. Paramedics with less training than qualified doctors eg Jung Chang
What happened to many teachers at Beijing University on 18th August 1966?
Dragged out their classes, beaten, faces blackened and forced to wear dunce's caps. Violence quickly spread to other cities
When were all universities closed and when did they reopen?
Closed in summer 1966 and reopened in spring 1967
How many young people were sent for rustication in 1968-76?
Over 12 million
When did Mao say 'the more books you read the more stupid you become?
Why did the disruption to education damage China in the long term?
Many of the youth became cynical, disillusioned and lacked ambition. Experiences in countryside made them unable to swallow idea of communist euphoria
What reforms were made to schools after the Cultural Revolution?
Fewer examinations, focus on practical work and sciences rather than scholar content. Pupils required to undertake two months of labour per year to complete their courses
Who was made authority over cultural life after the revolution and what did this mean?
Jiang Qing. Only allowed 'revolutionary' plays, traditional and foreign art and literature were banned. Libraries and museums were closed and had books and artefacts destroyed or dispersed
Why did Jiang Qing single out targets?
Wanted to remove any evidence of her past, as an actress in the 1930s
What did the CRG, led by Qing order Red Guards to do after travelling from Beijing to Shandong?
Desecrate the Confucius museum, it symbolised traditional culture in China. 'Confucius and co' became a label for everything that belonged to old Chinese culture
Why was it a crime to show respect to your elders?
Due to attacks on Confucian principles
How many people died at the hands of Kang Sheng?
14k in Yunnan, 350k arrested in Mongolia of which 89k beaten and further 16k killed
What percentage of provincial and regional officials were purged?
70%, including 4 out of 6 Regional Party Firsr Secretaries
What percentage of higher ranking officials lost their jobs at a national level?
How many of the 1966 Politburo survived the purges?
9 out of 23
What percentage of party bureaucracy were labelled 'revisionists' or 'taking capitalist roads'?
How many cadres were sent to May 7th Cadre Schools?
When did Mao's focus change from destruction of old old to creation of new?
What were conditions for old Red Guards being taken back into the CPC?
If they could demonstrate they were 'worker peasant soldier'
When were the changes to the party confirmed?
Central Committee in October 1968 and Party Congress 1969
How many delegates to Congress were there and how many from them were from the PLA?
1,500 2/3 from PLA
How much of the new Central Committee were former PLA members?
Why did Mao like the new Party and Committee members?
Unlikely to be independent thinkers, likely to be slavish adherents of Mao Zedong thought
What was the Politburo replaced by?
Small Standing Committee consisting of Mao, Lin Biao, Zhou Enlai, Chen Boda and Kang Sheng
How old was Mao in 1969?
76 years old
What did Mao call the Cultural Revolution in 1969?
"A great and decisive victory"
What were the factions and power groups after the Cultural Revolution?
Lin Biao and the PLA, Jiang Qing and the Shanghai Radicals, Zhou Enlai and the bureaucracy