Thyroid disease can be ___ or ___.
primary , secondary
What is a goitre?
Lump in the thyroid gland
Primary thyroid disease is usually ___.
Secondary thyroid disease is usually caused by disease of which glands?
Which hormone is released from the anterior pituitary gland and affects the function of the thyroid gland?
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
also known as thyrotropin
TSH is also known as ___.
What are the two hormones produced by the thyroid gland?
99% of T3 and T4 is bound to what?
Thyroxine binding globulin
Which hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, triggers the anterior pituitary's production of TSH?
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is controlled by ___ feedback.
What happen to the levels of free T3/T4 and TSH in
a) primary hypothyroidism
b) primary hyperthyroidism?
a) Primary hypothyroidism - free T3/4 LOW, TSH HIGH
b) Free T3/4 HIGH, TSH LOW
In secondary hypothyroidism, is TSH raised?
Secondary hyperthyroidism is very rare. What are the levels of T3/4 and TSH?
Everything is high
What is hypothyroidism?
Insufficient secretion of thyroid hormones
What is severe hypothyroidism also known as?
What is a rare sign of Graves disease, which itself causes hyperthyroidism?
Hypothyroidism is very (common / uncommon).
Reduced intake of what can cause hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism is categorised by the presence or absence of a...
What is an autoimmune cause of hypothyroidism which presents with a goitre?
What occurs in Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
Auotimmune destruction of thyroid gland
Reduced thyroid hormone secretion
Hashiomoto's thyroiditis is more common in (men / women).
As with all autoimmune disease
What antibodies are seen in Hashimoto's disease?
Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO)
What is seen histologically in Hashimoto's disease?
T cell infiltration
Why are the symptoms of thyroid disease so diverse?
Systemic impact of hormones
What is seen in the hair and skin of someone with hypothyroidism?
Coarse, sparse hair
Expressionless, puffy face
Pale, cold skin
Hypercarotenaemia (orange skin)
People with hypothyroidism will complain of being very (hot / cold).
What is seen in the ankles of people with hypothyroidism?
What are some cardiovascular complications of hypothyroidism?
Hyperlipidaemia (inc. xanthelasma)
People with hypothyroidism have a REDUCED appetite - what happens to their weight?
They gain weight anyway