6: Basic principles of endocrinology Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 3 2017/18 > 6: Basic principles of endocrinology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6: Basic principles of endocrinology Deck (53)
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1

What the major endocrine glands of the body?

Pituitary

Hypothalamus

Pineal

Thyroid and parathyroids

Adrenals

Pancreas

Ovaries and testes

2

What are the three main classes of hormone and examples of each?

Peptide hormones - insulin, glucagon, prolactin, GH

Steroid hormones - cortisol, testosterone, oestrogen

Tyrosine derivatives - adrenaline, thyroid hormones

3

Which kinds of receptor have a role in the endocrine system?

G-protein coupled receptors

Tyrosine kinase receptors

Nuclear receptors

4

Mutations causing the loss of function of ___ receptors can cause endocrine disease.

G-protein coupled receptors

5

Where are

a) G-protein coupled receptors

b) Tyrosine kinase receptors

c) Steroid receptors

found?

a) Cell membrane

b) Cell membrane

c) Nucleus

6

What produces the cellular effect in

a) G-protein coupled receptors

b) Tyrosine kinase receptors

c) Steroid receptors?

a) Receptor activates signalling cascade (e.g cAMP)

b) Autophosphorylation of beta subunits

c) Hormone binds to DNA and alters gene transcription

7

Which axis regulates the activity of peripheral endocrine glands?

Hypothalamic - pituitary axis

8

Which hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary?

All of them apart from ADH and oxytocin:

Growth hormone

FSH & LH

ACTH

TSH

PRL

9

Which hormones are produced by the posterior pituitary gland?

ADH

Oxytocin

10

What can be measured to diagnose and monitor endocrine diseases?

Hormone concentrations

11

What is the main determinant of hormone concentration?

Rate of secretion

12

What hormones are released from the hypothalamus and pituitary in the thyroid axis?

Hypothalamus - TRH

Anterior pituitary - TSH

13

In which diseases is TSH secretion

a) raised

b) suppressed?

a) Raised TSH secretion = hypothyroidism

b) Suppressed TSH secretion = hyperthyroidism

14

When may TSH not be a reliable indicator of thyroid status?

Anterior pituitary tumours

15

Pituitary dysfunction produces (primary / secondary) thyroid disease.

secondary thyroid disease

16

What anterior pituitary diseases can produce a secondary

a) hyperthyroidism

b) hypothyroidism?

a) hyperthyroidism - thyrotropinoma / TSHoma

b) hypothyroidism - anterior pituitary dysfunction

17

Why are thyroid hormone levels of limited value in acutely ill patients?

Fluctuate with disease

> Non-thyroid illness

Can throw your differential

18

What are two emergency conditions associated with

a) hyperthryoidism

b) hypothyroidism?

hyperthyroidism > Thyroid storm

hypothyroidism > Myxoedema coma

19

How is function of the pituitary gland assessed?

Hormone levels

MRI scan

Synacthen test

20

Which hormones are released from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary in the adrenal axis?

Hypothalamus - corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)

Anterior pituitary - adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)

21

Cortisol release by the adrenal glands is released in what kind of rhythm?

Circadian rhythm

22

When are cortisol levels supposed to be measured?

9am

23

What are the two hormones secreted by the hypothalamus to regulate growth hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary?

Somatostatin - inhibits growth hormone secretion

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

24

Which organ does GH act on?

Liver

Also adipose tissue

25

What is released by the liver in response to growth hormone?

IGF-1 

Insulin-like growth factor 1

26

GH must be measured through ___ testing.

dynamic testing

27

Which hormones are released from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary in the gonadal axis?

Hypothalamus - gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Anterior pituitary - lutenising hormone (LH) , follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

28

When should testosterone levels be measured?

9am

29

When should female sex hormones be measured?

Depends on timing of menstrual cycle

30

Which hormone is released by lactotroph cells in the anterior pituitary?

Prolactin