At what level is the thyroid gland found?
C5 - T1
Where does the thyroid gland start out during development?
Through which hole in the tongue does it move inferiorly?
Which passage carries it to the neck?
What is a thyroid called when it fails to descend through the thyroglossal duct?
If the thyroid gland descends too much during development, where can it end up?
behind the sternum
What is a thyroglossal duct cyst?
Benign growth which moves with swallowing
The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ composed of ___, where the thyroid hormones are produced.
What chemical is found in thyroid follicles?
Which cells produce T3 and T4?
Which cells are found next to follicles and secrete calcitonin?
C cells (parafollicular cells)
t3 and t4
When T3 / 4 levels are high, the secretion of hormones along the h.p.t axis is (increased / suppressed).
What type of receptor are TSH receptors?
G protein receptors
Release of T3 and T4 are controlled by cyclic AMP
What do the thyroid hormones do?
Regulate metabolic rate
What happens to the size of the thyroid gland when it is
hyperactive - enlarged
underactive - atrophied
What is thyroiditis?
Inflammation of the thyroid gland
Which type of thyroiditis causes hypofunction?
What kind of thyroiditis causes hyperfunction?
Hashimoto's disease causes ___thyroidism.
Graves disease causes ___thyroidism.
Disease stimulates thyroid gland
Autoimmune thyroiditis has a large ___ component.
What are some genes associated with autoimmune thyroiditis?
What state occurs as a result of excess thyroid hormone in hyperthyroidism?
Apart from hyperthyroidism, what else can cause thyrotoxicosis?
Ectopic thyroid gland
What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?
Apart from Graves disease, hyperthyroidism can also be caused by ___.
of both thyroid and other organs e.g pituitary
Graves disease is more common in (men / women).
What antibody is associated with Graves disease?
TSH receptor antibodies
What are the three main features seen in Graves disease?
Pretibial myoxedema (leg swelling)
What is the main cause of hypothyroidism?
As with Graves and other thyroid diseases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis mainly affects ___.