2: Pathology of the thyroid gland Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 3 2017/18 > 2: Pathology of the thyroid gland > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Pathology of the thyroid gland Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
1

At what level is the thyroid gland found?

C5 - T1

2

Where does the thyroid gland start out during development?

Through which hole in the tongue does it move inferiorly?

Which passage carries it to the neck?

Tongue

Foramen caecum

Thyroglossal duct

3

What is a thyroid called when it fails to descend through the thyroglossal duct?

Lingual thyroid

4

If the thyroid gland descends too much during development, where can it end up?

Mediastinum

behind the sternum

5

What is a thyroglossal duct cyst?

Benign growth which moves with swallowing

6

The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ composed of ___, where the thyroid hormones are produced.

follicles

7

What chemical is found in thyroid follicles?

Thyroglobulin

8

Which cells produce T3 and T4?

Follicular cells

9

Which cells are found next to follicles and secrete calcitonin?

C cells (parafollicular cells)

10

hypothalamus

trh

anterior pituitary

tsh

thyroid gland

t3 and t4

target cells

11

When T3 / 4 levels are high, the secretion of hormones along the h.p.t axis is (increased / suppressed).

suppressed

12

What type of receptor are TSH receptors?

G protein receptors

Release of T3 and T4 are controlled by cyclic AMP

13

What do the thyroid hormones do?

Regulate metabolic rate

14

What happens to the size of the thyroid gland when it is

a) hyperactive

b) underactive?

hyperactive - enlarged

underactive - atrophied

15

What is thyroiditis?

Inflammation of the thyroid gland

16

Which type of thyroiditis causes hypofunction?

Hashimoto's

17

What kind of thyroiditis causes hyperfunction?

Graves disease

18

Hashimoto's disease causes ___thyroidism.

hypothyroidism

19

Graves disease causes ___thyroidism.

Why?

hyperthyroidism

Disease stimulates thyroid gland

20

Autoimmune thyroiditis has a large ___ component.

genetic

21

What are some genes associated with autoimmune thyroiditis?

CTLA-4

PTPN-22

22

What state occurs as a result of excess thyroid hormone in hyperthyroidism?

Thyrotoxicosis

23

Apart from hyperthyroidism, what else can cause thyrotoxicosis?

Thyroiditis

Ectopic thyroid gland

24

What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism?

Graves disease

25

Apart from Graves disease, hyperthyroidism can also be caused by ___.

tumours

of both thyroid and other organs e.g pituitary

26

Graves disease is more common in (men / women).

women

27

What antibody is associated with Graves disease?

TSH receptor antibodies

28

What are the three main features seen in Graves disease?

Hyperthyroidism

Eye changes

Pretibial myoxedema (leg swelling)

29

What is the main cause of hypothyroidism?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

30

As with Graves and other thyroid diseases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis mainly affects ___.

women