What is found superior to the pituitary gland?
The pituitary gland is split into which parts?
Anterior and posterior pituitary gland
What hormones are produced by the posterior pituitary?
Which hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary gland?
Which gland itself controls the pituitary gland?
What are the effects of cortisol?
Increases blood glucose level
Increases immune response
What is the main difference between prolactin release from the anterior pituitary and all the other hormones?
Dopamine inhibits constant prolactin secretion by the anterior pituitary
What are the three clinical presentations you see in endocrinology?
Too much hormone
Not enough hormone
Gland is too big
In which direction do pituitary tumours usually grow?
because inferiorly and laterally there are bones
What structure tends to be compressed by pituitary tumours?
If a pituitary tumour grows around the internal carotid artery, can it be cured surgically?
No, risk of rupturing artery too high
What ENT symptom may patients present with if a pituitary tumour breaches the sphenoid sinus?
CSF leak from nose
What dynamic tests would you do in the case of
a) too much hormone
b) too little hormone?
a) Too much > Suppression test
b) Too little > Stimuation test
Diabetes insipidus involves a deficiency of what?
What is the stimulation test for diabetes insipidus?
Water deprivation test
should stimulate the release of ADH
What name is given to pituitary tumours
a) < 1cm
b) > 1cm
< or equal to 1cm diameter - MICROADENOMA
> 1cm diameter - MACROADENOMA
What is a non-functioning pituitary adenoma?
A pituitary adenoma which doesn't produce any hormone
What can non-functioning pituitary adenomas compress?
CN III, IV & VI (optic, trochlear, abducent nerves)
What endocrine conditions do non-functioning pituitary adenomas produce?
Not producing hormone, so deficiencies:
If a non-functioning pituitary adenoma affects the posterior pituitary, what endocrine condition can you get?
At the optic chiasm, which optic nerves cross over and which ones stay on the unilateral side?
Temporal nerves stay on the same side
Nasal nerves cross over
Which type of vision is lost in optic chiasm compression?
Temporal vision on both sides
What is the physiological function of prolactin?
Production of breast milk
What are physiological causes for a raised prolactin?
Which drugs cause raised prolactin?
What is an example of a dopamine antagonist which raises prolactin?
How do dopamine agonists affect prolactin levels?
Which thyroid-related hormone causes prolactin levels to rise?
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
so PRL is raised in hypothyroidism
Which thyroid disease causes raised prolactin levels?
as TRH levels are raised to compensate
What is a functioning adenoma which can cause raised prolactin?