1 - Immune Function (Part 2) - (shifts) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1 - Immune Function (Part 2) - (shifts) Deck (23):
1

Ratio of immature WBCs is greater than mature cells.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Left

  • Increase in immature WBCs.
  • "Kicked out" into bloodstream.
  • Ratio of immature WBCs greater than mature cells.
  • Usually seen in cases of increasing infection.
    • i.e., bacterial infection or postop infection.
  • Usually seen: 
    • active infection
    • hypoxia or shock
    • sepsis
    • severe inflammatory response
  • A left shift can occur with either a HIGH or LOW white blood count.
  • A high WBC count indicates release of immature neutrophils in response to overwhelming inflammation or infection.
  • A left shift with low WBC count indicates infection of such intensity that demand for neutrophils exceeds supply, or it can indicate recovery from bone marrow suppression.
  • Accelerates the release of cells from reserve pool in bone marrow therefore more immature WBCs released into blood stream.

A image thumb
2

Can see "giant neutrophils" due to large size.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Right

  • Ratio of mature WBCs greater than production
    of immature WBCs.
    • Mature WBCs > immature WBCs
    • Segs > bands

 

  1. Viral infections
  2. Liver disease
  3. Megaloblastic anemia
  4. Hemolysis
  5. Drugs
  6. Cancer (Leukemia)  (Radiation)
  7. Allergies

 

  • Can see "giant netrophils" due to large size.
  • Seen with suppression of bone marrow activity.

 

  • A right shift indicates that cells have more than the usual number of nuclear segments.
  • For infections:
    • the infection is clearing
    • the store of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is exhausted and the body cannot keep up with the supply that is required to fight off the infection

3

Usually seen in active infection, hypoxia or shock, sepsis, or severe inflammatory responses.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Left

  • Increase in immature WBCs.
  • "Kicked out" into bloodstream.
  • Ratio of immature WBCs greater than mature cells.
  • Usually seen in cases of increasing infection.
    • i.e., bacterial infection or postop infection.
  • Usually seen: 
    • active infection
    • hypoxia or shock
    • sepsis
    • severe inflammatory response
  • A left shift can occur with either a HIGH or LOW white blood count.
  • A high WBC count indicates release of immature neutrophils in response to overwhelming inflammation or infection.
  • A left shift with low WBC count indicates infection of such intensity that demand for neutrophils exceeds supply, or it can indicate recovery from bone marrow suppression.
  • Accelerates the release of cells from reserve pool in bone marrow therefore more immature WBCs released into blood stream.

A image thumb
4

Indicates infection of such intensity that demand for neutrophils exceeds supply, or it can indicate recovery from bone marrow suppression.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Left

  • Increase in immature WBCs.
  • "Kicked out" into bloodstream.
  • Ratio of immature WBCs greater than mature cells.
  • Usually seen in cases of increasing infection.
    • i.e., bacterial infection or postop infection.
  • Usually seen: 
    • active infection
    • hypoxia or shock
    • sepsis
    • severe inflammatory response
  • A left shift can occur with either a HIGH or LOW white blood count.
  • A high WBC count indicates release of immature neutrophils in response to overwhelming inflammation or infection.
  • A left shift with low WBC count indicates infection of such intensity that demand for neutrophils exceeds supply, or it can indicate recovery from bone marrow suppression.
  • Accelerates the release of cells from reserve pool in bone marrow therefore more immature WBCs released into blood stream.

A image thumb
5

Usually seen in viral infections, radiation sickness, and pernicious anemia.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Right

  • Ratio of mature WBCs greater than production
    of immature WBCs.
    • Mature WBCs > immature WBCs
    • Segs > bands

 

  1. Viral infections
  2. Liver disease
  3. Megaloblastic anemia
  4. Hemolysis
  5. Drugs
  6. Cancer (Leukemia)  (Radiation)
  7. Allergies

 

  • Can see "giant netrophils" due to large size.
  • Seen with suppression of bone marrow activity.

 

  • A right shift indicates that cells have more than the usual number of nuclear segments.
  • For infections:
    • the infection is clearing
    • the store of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is exhausted and the body cannot keep up with the supply that is required to fight off the infection

6

Indicates that the infection is clearing and the store of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is exhausted and the body cannot keep up with the supply that is required to fight off the infection.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Right

  • Ratio of mature WBCs greater than production
    of immature WBCs.
    • Mature WBCs > immature WBCs
    • Segs > bands

 

  1. Viral infections
  2. Liver disease
  3. Megaloblastic anemia
  4. Hemolysis
  5. Drugs
  6. Cancer (Leukemia)  (Radiation)
  7. Allergies

 

  • Can see "giant netrophils" due to large size.
  • Seen with suppression of bone marrow activity.

 

  • A right shift indicates that cells have more than the usual number of nuclear segments.
  • For infections:
    • the infection is clearing
    • the store of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is exhausted and the body cannot keep up with the supply that is required to fight off the infection

7

Increase in immature WBCs.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Left

  • Increase in immature WBCs.
  • "Kicked out" into bloodstream.
  • Ratio of immature WBCs greater than mature cells.
  • Usually seen in cases of increasing infection.
    • i.e., bacterial infection or postop infection.
  • Usually seen: 
    • active infection
    • hypoxia or shock
    • sepsis
    • severe inflammatory response
  • A left shift can occur with either a HIGH or LOW white blood count.
  • A high WBC count indicates release of immature neutrophils in response to overwhelming inflammation or infection.
  • A left shift with low WBC count indicates infection of such intensity that demand for neutrophils exceeds supply, or it can indicate recovery from bone marrow suppression.
  • Accelerates the release of cells from reserve pool in bone marrow therefore more immature WBCs released into blood stream.

A image thumb
8

Ratio of mature WBCs is greater than production of immature WBCs.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Right

  • Ratio of mature WBCs greater than production
    of immature WBCs.
    • Mature WBCs > immature WBCs
    • Segs > bands

 

  1. Viral infections
  2. Liver disease
  3. Megaloblastic anemia
  4. Hemolysis
  5. Drugs
  6. Cancer (Leukemia)  (Radiation)
  7. Allergies

 

  • Can see "giant netrophils" due to large size.
  • Seen with suppression of bone marrow activity.

 

  • A right shift indicates that cells have more than the usual number of nuclear segments.
  • For infections:
    • the infection is clearing
    • the store of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is exhausted and the body cannot keep up with the supply that is required to fight off the infection

9

Seen with suppression of bone marrow activity.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

Shift to the Right

  • Ratio of mature WBCs greater than production
    of immature WBCs.
    • Mature WBCs > immature WBCs
    • Segs > bands

 

  1. Viral infections
  2. Liver disease
  3. Megaloblastic anemia
  4. Hemolysis
  5. Drugs
  6. Cancer (Leukemia)  (Radiation)
  7. Allergies

 

  • Can see "giant netrophils" due to large size.
  • Seen with suppression of bone marrow activity.

 

  • A right shift indicates that cells have more than the usual number of nuclear segments.
  • For infections:
    • the infection is clearing
    • the store of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is exhausted and the body cannot keep up with the supply that is required to fight off the infection

10

Usually seen in cases of increasing infection, i.e., bacterial infection or postop infection.

A) Shift to the left

B) Shift to the right

 

Shift to the Left

  • Increase in immature WBCs.
  • "Kicked out" into bloodstream.
  • Ratio of immature WBCs greater than mature cells.
  • Usually seen in cases of increasing infection.
    • i.e., bacterial infection or postop infection.
  • Usually seen: 
    • active infection
    • hypoxia or shock
    • sepsis
    • severe inflammatory response
  • A left shift can occur with either a HIGH or LOW white blood count.
  • A high WBC count indicates release of immature neutrophils in response to overwhelming inflammation or infection.
  • A left shift with low WBC count indicates infection of such intensity that demand for neutrophils exceeds supply, or it can indicate recovery from bone marrow suppression.
  • Accelerates the release of cells from reserve pool in bone marrow therefore more immature WBCs released into blood stream.

A image thumb
11

Appears in body fluids (blood, saliva, tears, breast milk, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, prostatic, and vaginal secretions).

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgA

 

A image thumb
12

Appears in small amounts in serum.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgD

 

A image thumb
13

Which immunoglobulins activate the complement system? (select all that apply)

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgG and IgM

 

14

Prevents absorption of antigens from food.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgA

 

A image thumb
15

Appears as the first immunoglobulin produced in response to bacterial and viral infections.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgM

 

A image thumb
16

Appears mostly in intravascular serum.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgM

 

A image thumb
17

Appears in serum and tissues (interstitial fluid).

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgG

A image thumb
18

Appears in serum and combats parasitic infections.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgE

 

A image thumb
19

Assumes a major role in bloodborne and tissue infections.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgG

A image thumb
20

Possibly influences B-lymphocyte differentiation, but role is unclear.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgD

 

A image thumb
21

Crosses the placenta and enhances phagocytosis.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgG

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22

Protects against respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary infections.  Passes to neonate in breast milk for protection.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgA

 

A image thumb
23

Takes part in allergic and some hypersensitivity reactions.

a.) IgG

b.) IgA

c.) IgM

d.) IgE

e.) IgD

IgE

 

A image thumb