1 - Immune Function (Part 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1 - Immune Function (Part 3) Deck (18):
1

Acquired Immunity

Patient receives direct administration of antibodies.

a.) Active immunity

b.) Passive immunity

Passive immunity

Patient receives direct administration of antibodies.

usually short lived

Gamma Globulin

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2

Vaccines

Memory, not infectious.

a.) Titers

b.) Killed

c.) Live, attenuated

d.) Toxoids

Killed

Vaccines are contraindicated for the immunocompromised, diarrhea, vomiting, fever.

Remember, we cound induration (bumpiness), not redness

3

Hypersensitivities

Most common forms of immune complex disease are seen in glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

Type III - Immune Complex Reaction

 

Most common forms of immune complex disease are seen in glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

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4

Hypersensitivities

Causes localized and systemic anapyhlaxis, seasonal allergies including hay fever, food allergies such as those to shellfish and peanuts, hives, and eczema.

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

Type I

IgE is bound to mast cells via its Fc portion.  When an allergen binds to these antibodies, crosslinking of IgE induces degranulation.

Causes:

  1. Localized and systemic anaphylaxis.
  2. Seasonal allergies including hay fever.
  3. Food allergies
    • i.e., shellfish and peanuts
  4. Hives
  5. Eczema
  6. Reactions to insect stings

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5

Hypersensitivities

An immune complex reaction is marked by acute inflammation resulting from formation and deposition of immune complexes.  The joints and kidneys are particularly susceptible to this kind of reaction, which is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, serum sickness, nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.  Some s/s include urticaria, joint pain, fever, irdigardia (rash), and adenopathy (swollen glands).

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

Type III - Immune Complex Reaction

An immune complex reaction is marked by acute inflammation resulting from formation and deposition of immune complexes.  The joints and kidneys are particularly susceptible to this kind of reaction, which is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, serum sickness, nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.  

Some s/s include urticaria, joint pain, fever, irdigardia (rash), and adenopathy (swollen glands).

Most common forms of immune complex disease are seen in glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

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6

Stages of Immune Response

 

a.) Recognition Stage

b.) Proliferation Stage

c.) Response Stage

d.) Effector Stage

 

  1. Recognition Stage
    • Lymph nodes, lymphocytes and neutrophils.
    • Use circulation to "patrol" tissues and vessels.
    • Once foreign invader is discovered, immune process is initiated.
       
  2. Proliferation Stage
    • T-cells and B-cells divide rapidly
    • T-cells → Killer T-cells
    • B-cells → antibodies
    • Getting the army ready
       
  3. Response Stage
    • Humoral - antibodies released into the bloodstream.
    • Cell-mediated - direct attack on microby by killer T-cells.
       
  4. Effector Stage
    • Depends on which response reaches antigen first: humoral or cell-mediated.
    • Humoral: neutralization / make inert
      • Humoral → Humerus Bone → Bone Marrow → Antibodies
    • Cell-Mediated: total destruction
      • Mediated has a T → Thymus → T-cell
    • Outcome: total destruction vs. complete neutralization of invading microbe.
    • Return to homeostasis.

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7

Vaccines

Castrated, will get response but will not replicate.

a.) Titers

b.) Killed

c.) Live, attenuated

d.) Toxoids

Live, attenuated

Vaccines are contraindicated for the immunocompromised, diarrhea, vomiting, fever.

Remember, we cound induration (bumpiness), not redness

8

 

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

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9

Acquired Immunity

Patient's immune system is stimulated to produce antibodies after exposure to antigen.

a.) Active immunity

b.) Passive immunity

Active immunity

Patient's immune system is stimulated to produce antibodies after exposure to antigen.

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10

Stages of Immune Response

 

a.) Recognition Stage

b.) Proliferation Stage

c.) Response Stage

d.) Effector Stage

 

  1. Recognition Stage
    • Lymph nodes, lymphocytes and neutrophils.
    • Use circulation to "patrol" tissues and vessels.
    • Once foreign invader is discovered, immune process is initiated.
       
  2. Proliferation Stage
    • T-cells and B-cells divide rapidly
    • T-cells → Killer T-cells
    • B-cells → antibodies
    • Getting the army ready
       
  3. Response Stage
    • Humoral - antibodies released into the bloodstream.
    • Cell-mediated - direct attack on microby by killer T-cells.
       
  4. Effector Stage
    • Depends on which response reaches antigen first: humoral or cell-mediated.
    • Humoral: neutralization / make inert
      • Humoral → Humerus Bone → Bone Marrow → Antibodies
    • Cell-Mediated: total destruction
      • Mediated has a T → Thymus → T-cell
    • Outcome: total destruction vs. complete neutralization of invading microbe.
    • Return to homeostasis.

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11

Vaccines

Test degree of immunity of disease.

a.) Titers

b.) Killed

c.) Live, attenuated

d.) Toxoids

Titers

Vaccines are contraindicated for the immunocompromised, diarrhea, vomiting, fever.

Remember, we cound induration (bumpiness), not redness

12

Hypersensitivities

Occurs 1-3 days after exposure to an antigen.  The reaction, which results in tissue damage, involves activity by lymphokines, macrophages, and lysozymes.  Erythema and itching are common; a few examples include contact dermatitis, graft-versus-host disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and sarcoidosis.

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

Type IV - Delayed or Cellular Reaction

Occurs 1-3 days after exposure to an antigen.  The reaction, which results in tissue damage, involves activity by lymphokines, macrophages, and lysozymes.  

Erythema and itching are common; a few examples include contact dermatitis, graft-versus-host disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and sarcoidosis.

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13

Stages of Immune Response

 

a.) Recognition Stage

b.) Proliferation Stage

c.) Response Stage

d.) Effector Stage

 

  1. Recognition Stage
    • Lymph nodes, lymphocytes and neutrophils.
    • Use circulation to "patrol" tissues and vessels.
    • Once foreign invader is discovered, immune process is initiated.
       
  2. Proliferation Stage
    • T-cells and B-cells divide rapidly
    • T-cells → Killer T-cells
    • B-cells → antibodies
    • Getting the army ready
       
  3. Response Stage
    • Humoral - antibodies released into the bloodstream.
    • Cell-mediated - direct attack on microby by killer T-cells.
       
  4. Effector Stage
    • Depends on which response reaches antigen first: humoral or cell-mediated.
    • Humoral: neutralization / make inert
      • Humoral → Humerus Bone → Bone Marrow → Antibodies
    • Cell-Mediated: total destruction
      • Mediated has a T → Thymus → T-cell
    • Outcome: total destruction vs. complete neutralization of invading microbe.
    • Return to homeostasis.

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14

Hypersensitivities

A cytotoxic reaction, which involves the binding of either the IgG or IgM antibody to a cell-bound antigen, may lead to eventual cell and tissue damage.  The reaction is the result of mistaken identity when the system identifies a normal constituent of the body as foreign and activates the complement cascade.

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

Type II - Cytotoxic Reaction

A cytotoxic reaction, which involves the binding of either the IgG or IgM antibody to a cell-bound antigen, may lead to eventual cell and tissue damage.  

The reaction is the result of mistaken identity when the system identifies a normal constituent of the body as foreign and activates the complement cascade.

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15

Stages of Immune Response

 

a.) Recognition Stage

b.) Proliferation Stage

c.) Response Stage

d.) Effector Stage

 

  1. Recognition Stage
    • Lymph nodes, lymphocytes and neutrophils.
    • Use circulation to "patrol" tissues and vessels.
    • Once foreign invader is discovered, immune process is initiated.
       
  2. Proliferation Stage
    • T-cells and B-cells divide rapidly
    • T-cells → Killer T-cells
    • B-cells → antibodies
    • Getting the army ready
       
  3. Response Stage
    • Humoral - antibodies released into the bloodstream.
    • Cell-mediated - direct attack on microby by killer T-cells.
       
  4. Effector Stage
    • Depends on which response reaches antigen first: humoral or cell-mediated.
    • Humoral: neutralization / make inert
      • Humoral → Humerus Bone → Bone Marrow → Antibodies
    • Cell-Mediated: total destruction
      • Mediated has a T → Thymus → T-cell
    • Outcome: total destruction vs. complete neutralization of invading microbe.
    • Return to homeostasis.

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16

Vaccines

Hazardous properties have been removed from bacteria.

a.) Titers

b.) Killed

c.) Live, attenuated

d.) Toxoids

Toxoids

Vaccines are contraindicated for the immunocompromised, diarrhea, vomiting, fever.

Remember, we cound induration (bumpiness), not redness

17

Hypersensitivities

Causes localized and systemic anapyhlaxis, seasonal allergies including hay fever, food allergies such as those to shellfish and peanuts, hives, and eczema.

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

Type I

IgE is bound to mast cells via its Fc portion.  When an allergen binds to these antibodies, crosslinking of IgE induces degranulation.

Causes:

  1. Localized and systemic anaphylaxis.
  2. Seasonal allergies including hay fever.
  3. Food allergies
    • i.e., shellfish and peanuts
  4. Hives
  5. Eczema
  6. Reactions to insect stings

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18

Hypersensitivities

Red blood cells are destroyed by complement and antibody during a transfusion of mismatched blood type or during erythroblastosis fetalis.

a.) Type I

b.) Type II

c.) Type III

d.) Type IV

Type II - Cytotoxic Reaction

A cytotoxic reaction, which involves the binding of either the IgG or IgM antibody to a cell-bound antigen, may lead to eventual cell and tissue damage.  

The reaction is the result of mistaken identity when the system identifies a normal constituent of the body as foreign and activates the complement cascade.

A image thumb