10: Types of Dementia Flashcards Preview

Simmons NURP 503 Exam 3 > 10: Types of Dementia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10: Types of Dementia Deck (64)
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1
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Multi-infarct

A

Progressive (permanent)

2
Q

What percentage of mild cognitive impairment progresses to dementia each year?

A

10-15%

3
Q

More profound deficits in self-awareness, self-monitoring, and self-knowledge compared to patients with AD.

A

Frontotemporal Dementia (Pick’s Disease)

4
Q

_____ affects people more in middle age.

A

Pick’s disease

5
Q

What deficiency causes Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome?

A

Thiamine

6
Q

Loss of ability to understand or express speech.

A

Aphasia

7
Q

Theories of causation for vascular dementias (6).

A
  1. Lacunae
  2. Multiembolic events
  3. Vasculitis
  4. Blood dyscrasias
  5. Hypoperfusion
  6. Anoxic episodes
8
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

A

Reversible (potentially)

9
Q

Early, mid, or late stage AD?

Memory loss, poor judgment, perceptual disturbances, withdrawal, and depression.

A

Early Stage

10
Q

_____ (intracellular deposits observed in degenerated neurons) distribute in brain regions involved in learning, memory, and language.

A

Neurofibrillary tangles

11
Q

People live an average of _____ years after diagnosis of AD.

A

8-10 years

12
Q

What is the usual cause of delirium?

A

Underlying physical illness

13
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Delirium

A

Reversible (potentially)

14
Q

T/F Alcoholic dementias can coexist with AD and multi-infarct.

A

True

15
Q

Inability to interpret sensations and hence to recognize things.

A

Agnosia

16
Q

Adult presents with deficits in memory or in other cognitive functions without significant impact on daily functioning.

A

Mild Cognitive Impairment

17
Q

50% of those with mental status change, with the etiology of depression, develop dementia over the next _____ years.

A

5

18
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Alcoholic dementias

A

Progressive (permanent)

19
Q

Inability to perform particular purposive actions.

A

Apraxia

20
Q

Neuropathological hallmarks (_____) are diagnostic of AD.

A

Amyloid plaques

21
Q

Early, mid, or late stage AD?

Recent and remote memory loss, restlessness, perseveration, loss of impulse control, and increased aphasia.

A

Mid Stage

22
Q

A speech disorder in which a person has trouble saying what he or she wants to say correctly and consistently.

A

Verbal Apraxia

23
Q

What deficiency causes alcohol-induced pellagra?

A

Niacin and/or tryptophan

24
Q

Patients with _____ are six times more likely to get dementia.

A

Parkinson’s Disease

25
Q

What 5 meds can cause reversible dementia?

A
  1. H2RAs
  2. Antidepressants
  3. Anti-anxiety agents
  4. Major tranquilizers
  5. Cardiac meds
26
Q

What is the #1 etiologic factor in AD?

A

Genetics

27
Q

Abnormal processing of _____ is likely central to the pathogenesis of AD.

A

Amyloid beta protein

28
Q

_____ accounts for roughly 5-25% of reversible dementias.

A

Depression

29
Q

What are the 2 neurotransmitters involved in AD that are targets of medications?

A
  1. Acetylcholine

2. Glutamate

30
Q

Most common progressive dementia.

A

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

31
Q

Dementia or delirium? Abrupt changes in cognition that occur within hours to days.

A

Delirium

32
Q

Mixed dementia is reversible with _____.

A

Underlying progressive

33
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Alzheimer’s

A

Progressive (permanent)

34
Q

What is the most important risk factor for vascular dementias like multi-infarct?

A

HTN

35
Q

How can you tell the difference between frontotemporal dementia (Pick’s disease) and AD with imaging?

A

Atrophy is usually symmetrical in AD. It can be symmetrical or asymmetrical in Pick’s disease.

36
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Medications

A

Reversible (potentially)

37
Q

Occurs with history of gastric bypass surgery, alcohol abuse, advanced age, and PPI use.

A

B12 Deficiency Dementia

38
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Thyroid disease

A

Reversible (potentially)

39
Q

Early, mid, or late stage AD?

Incontinence, apraxia, little recognition of family, and loss of most self-care abilities.

A

Late Stage

40
Q

Life threatening alteration of consciousness. Also referred to as acute confusional state.

A

Delirium

41
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

B12 deficiency

A

Reversible (potentially)

42
Q

This type of dementia is fixed, irreversible.

A

Progressive

43
Q

How many identified genetic markers are present that precipitate the complex AD process?

A

1

44
Q

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?

Infections

A

Reversible (potentially)

45
Q

Medical emergency treatment for delirium focuses on what 2 things?

A
  1. Detecting underlying etiology

2. Protecting/advocating for patient

46
Q

3 alcohol-induced dementias.

A
  1. Wernicke-Korsakoff’s Syndrome
  2. Alcohol-induced Pellagra
  3. Hepatic Encephalitis
47
Q

What factors influence AD (8)?

A
  1. Genetics
  2. Aluminum
  3. Estrogen
  4. NSAIDs
  5. Vitamin E
  6. Viral agents
  7. DMT2 (explored)
  8. Alcohol consumption (explored)
48
Q

T/F There is currently no treatment to prevent progression of AD.

A

True

49
Q

Beta-amyloid protein accumulation leads to an _____ response, causing neuritic injury.

A

Inflammatory

50
Q

T/F The chances of social survival are better with multi-infarct dementia than with AD.

A

True. Essence of person’s personality is more intact than with AD.

51
Q

Progressive dementias have development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both memory impairment and at least one of the following what (4)?

A
  1. Aphasia
  2. Apraxia
  3. Agnosia
  4. Disturbance in executive functioning
52
Q

Major risk factors for all forms of dementia (3).

A
  1. HTN
  2. DM
  3. Hyperlipidemia
53
Q

Can mimic PD and has poor response to levodopa or Sinemet.

A

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)

54
Q

In more advanced stages of AD, _____ problems are enormous.

A

Behavioral

55
Q

Pick’s disease is a type of _____ dementia.

A

Frontotemporal

56
Q

Associated with triad of dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. What is it and how is it treated?

A

NPH is treated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt.

57
Q

In frontotemporal dementia (Pick’s Disease), imaging (CT and MRI) often reveals symmetrical or asymmetrical atrophy of _____ and _____ lobes.

A

Anterior temporal and frontal lobes

58
Q

The patho of Alzheimer’s involves neuritic _____ and _____, as well as deposition of amyloid beta protein.

A

Plaques and tangles

59
Q

Though UTIs and respiratory infections are the most common causes of infection-related dementia, _____ and _____ are other causes.

A

Diverticulitis and abscesses

60
Q

Often experience frequent falls, syncope, sensitivity to neuroleptic drugs, delusions, and hallucinations.

A

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) (Parkinson’s patients)

61
Q

Progressive complex neurological degeneration including loss of neurons, particularly those responsible for memory and cognition.

A

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

62
Q

Regarding the structure of AD, aggregates of _____ are seen adjacent to and within walls of blood vessels.

A

Amyloid protein

63
Q

Risk factors for delirium (6).

A
  1. 90+
  2. Substance abuse hx
  3. Dementia
  4. Postsurgery
  5. Sudden change in environment
  6. New medications
64
Q

What scale is helpful in differentiating AD from multi-infarct dementia?

A

Hachinski Ischemic Rating Scale