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Flashcards in 10: Types of Dementia Deck (64):
1

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Multi-infarct

Progressive (permanent)

2

What percentage of mild cognitive impairment progresses to dementia each year?

10-15%

3

More profound deficits in self-awareness, self-monitoring, and self-knowledge compared to patients with AD.

Frontotemporal Dementia (Pick's Disease)

4

_____ affects people more in middle age.

Pick's disease

5

What deficiency causes Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome?

Thiamine

6

Loss of ability to understand or express speech.

Aphasia

7

Theories of causation for vascular dementias (6).

1. Lacunae
2. Multiembolic events
3. Vasculitis
4. Blood dyscrasias
5. Hypoperfusion
6. Anoxic episodes

8

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

Reversible (potentially)

9

Early, mid, or late stage AD?
Memory loss, poor judgment, perceptual disturbances, withdrawal, and depression.

Early Stage

10

_____ (intracellular deposits observed in degenerated neurons) distribute in brain regions involved in learning, memory, and language.

Neurofibrillary tangles

11

People live an average of _____ years after diagnosis of AD.

8-10 years

12

What is the usual cause of delirium?

Underlying physical illness

13

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Delirium

Reversible (potentially)

14

T/F Alcoholic dementias can coexist with AD and multi-infarct.

True

15

Inability to interpret sensations and hence to recognize things.

Agnosia

16

Adult presents with deficits in memory or in other cognitive functions without significant impact on daily functioning.

Mild Cognitive Impairment

17

50% of those with mental status change, with the etiology of depression, develop dementia over the next _____ years.

5

18

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Alcoholic dementias

Progressive (permanent)

19

Inability to perform particular purposive actions.

Apraxia

20

Neuropathological hallmarks (_____) are diagnostic of AD.

Amyloid plaques

21

Early, mid, or late stage AD?
Recent and remote memory loss, restlessness, perseveration, loss of impulse control, and increased aphasia.

Mid Stage

22

A speech disorder in which a person has trouble saying what he or she wants to say correctly and consistently.

Verbal Apraxia

23

What deficiency causes alcohol-induced pellagra?

Niacin and/or tryptophan

24

Patients with _____ are six times more likely to get dementia.

Parkinson's Disease

25

What 5 meds can cause reversible dementia?

1. H2RAs
2. Antidepressants
3. Anti-anxiety agents
4. Major tranquilizers
5. Cardiac meds

26

What is the #1 etiologic factor in AD?

Genetics

27

Abnormal processing of _____ is likely central to the pathogenesis of AD.

Amyloid beta protein

28

_____ accounts for roughly 5-25% of reversible dementias.

Depression

29

What are the 2 neurotransmitters involved in AD that are targets of medications?

1. Acetylcholine
2. Glutamate

30

Most common progressive dementia.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

31

Dementia or delirium? Abrupt changes in cognition that occur within hours to days.

Delirium

32

Mixed dementia is reversible with _____.

Underlying progressive

33

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Alzheimer's

Progressive (permanent)

34

What is the most important risk factor for vascular dementias like multi-infarct?

HTN

35

How can you tell the difference between frontotemporal dementia (Pick's disease) and AD with imaging?

Atrophy is usually symmetrical in AD. It can be symmetrical or asymmetrical in Pick's disease.

36

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Medications

Reversible (potentially)

37

Occurs with history of gastric bypass surgery, alcohol abuse, advanced age, and PPI use.

B12 Deficiency Dementia

38

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Thyroid disease

Reversible (potentially)

39

Early, mid, or late stage AD?
Incontinence, apraxia, little recognition of family, and loss of most self-care abilities.

Late Stage

40

Life threatening alteration of consciousness. Also referred to as acute confusional state.

Delirium

41

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
B12 deficiency

Reversible (potentially)

42

This type of dementia is fixed, irreversible.

Progressive

43

How many identified genetic markers are present that precipitate the complex AD process?

1

44

Progressive (permanent) or reversible (potentially)?
Infections

Reversible (potentially)

45

Medical emergency treatment for delirium focuses on what 2 things?

1. Detecting underlying etiology
2. Protecting/advocating for patient

46

3 alcohol-induced dementias.

1. Wernicke-Korsakoff's Syndrome
2. Alcohol-induced Pellagra
3. Hepatic Encephalitis

47

What factors influence AD (8)?

1. Genetics
2. Aluminum
3. Estrogen
4. NSAIDs
5. Vitamin E
6. Viral agents
7. DMT2 (explored)
8. Alcohol consumption (explored)

48

T/F There is currently no treatment to prevent progression of AD.

True

49

Beta-amyloid protein accumulation leads to an _____ response, causing neuritic injury.

Inflammatory

50

T/F The chances of social survival are better with multi-infarct dementia than with AD.

True. Essence of person's personality is more intact than with AD.

51

Progressive dementias have development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both memory impairment and at least one of the following what (4)?

1. Aphasia
2. Apraxia
3. Agnosia
4. Disturbance in executive functioning

52

Major risk factors for all forms of dementia (3).

1. HTN
2. DM
3. Hyperlipidemia

53

Can mimic PD and has poor response to levodopa or Sinemet.

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)

54

In more advanced stages of AD, _____ problems are enormous.

Behavioral

55

Pick's disease is a type of _____ dementia.

Frontotemporal

56

Associated with triad of dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. What is it and how is it treated?

NPH is treated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt.

57

In frontotemporal dementia (Pick's Disease), imaging (CT and MRI) often reveals symmetrical or asymmetrical atrophy of _____ and _____ lobes.

Anterior temporal and frontal lobes

58

The patho of Alzheimer's involves neuritic _____ and _____, as well as deposition of amyloid beta protein.

Plaques and tangles

59

Though UTIs and respiratory infections are the most common causes of infection-related dementia, _____ and _____ are other causes.

Diverticulitis and abscesses

60

Often experience frequent falls, syncope, sensitivity to neuroleptic drugs, delusions, and hallucinations.

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) (Parkinson's patients)

61

Progressive complex neurological degeneration including loss of neurons, particularly those responsible for memory and cognition.

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

62

Regarding the structure of AD, aggregates of _____ are seen adjacent to and within walls of blood vessels.

Amyloid protein

63

Risk factors for delirium (6).

1. 90+
2. Substance abuse hx
3. Dementia
4. Postsurgery
5. Sudden change in environment
6. New medications

64

What scale is helpful in differentiating AD from multi-infarct dementia?

Hachinski Ischemic Rating Scale