9: Which Cancer? Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9: Which Cancer? Deck (43):
1

A malignancy of the germinal-center B cells that affects the reticuloendothelial and lymphatic systems.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

2

Most common extracranial solid tumor of infancy.

Neuroblastoma

3

Caused by alterations of genes responsible for normal genitourinary development.

Wilms Tumor

4

Patho: Small, round, blue cell tumors that are undifferentiated.

Neuroblastoma

5

Group of malignant hematologic diseases where normal bone marrow elements are replaced by abnormal, poorly differentiated lymphocytes (i.e., blast cells).

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

6

Most common malignancy diagnosed in children, representing one quarter of all pediatric cancers: 80% of cases.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

7

Uses the Shimade classification system.

Neuroblastoma

8

5 year survival rate: approximately 83% for infants; 55% for children aged 1-5 years; 40% for children older than 5 years.

Neuroblastoma

9

Diverse group of solid tumors of the lymphatic tissues that form from malignant proliferation of T cells, B cells, or indeterminate lymphocyte cells.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

10

Associated with EBV, CMV, and malaria.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)
Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

11

Malignant neoplasms of lymphoid lineage (2).

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

12

Associated anomalies include sporadic aniridia, hemihypertrophy, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and other GU abormalities.

Wilms Tumor

13

Most common presenting sign is leukocoria.

Retinoblastoma

14

Generally arises from multipotential precursor cell (mutation in the long arm of chromosome 13q14) that could develop into almost any type of inner or outer retinal cell.

Retinoblastoma

15

Chromosomal translocations involving genes for immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor molecules increases risk for this cancer.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

16

Most frequent cancer in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

17

More common in advanced, Westernized countries.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

18

Persistent painless adenopathy, usually cervical and/or mediastinal that is unresponsive to antibiotic therapy.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

19

Arise from a primitive mesenchymal bone-forming cell and characterized by production of osteoid.

Osteosarcoma

20

Genetic abnormalities in the hematopoietic cells take over and result in unregulated clonal proliferation of malignant cells. Uncontrolled increase in immature WBCs suppresses normal hematopoietic stem cells, leading to anemia and thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

21

Down syndrome increases risk of this cancer.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

22

S/Sx:
Acute abdomen (abdominal pain, distention, fullness, constipation) and non-tender lymph node involvement.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

23

Usually originates in cervical lymph nodes then spreads to other lymph node regions, then to organ systems, liver, spleen, bone, bone marrow, and brain.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

24

S/Sx:
1. Nontender cervical adenopathy
2. Mediastinal mass
3. Splenomegaly
4. Hepatomegaly

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

25

Successful Hodgkin treatment increases risk of this cancer.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

26

2nd most common primarily malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents.

Ewing Sarcoma

27

S/Sx: asymptomatic abdominal mass, hematuria, HTN.

Wilms Tumor

28

Patho: Lymphoid progenitor cell becomes genetically altered and subsequently undergoes dysregulated proliferation, with clonal expansion. Transformed lymphoid cells reflect the altered expression of genes usually involved in the normal development of B cells and T cells.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

29

This cancer tends to cluster in families.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

30

Embryonal malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system arising from pluripotent sympathetic cells.

Neuroblastoma

31

Peaks in children aged 2-6 years old and subsequently decreases with age.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

32

Has Reed-Sternberg cells (RSC).

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

33

Also includes Askin tumor and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

Ewing Sarcoma

34

Most common childhood abdominal and renal cancer.

Wilms Tumor

35

S/Sx:
Abdominal pain, emesis, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, bone pain, limp, HTN, chronic diarrhea.

Neuroblastoma

36

Represents 50% of the lymphomas of childhood.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

37

Present with pain, palpable mass. Can occur in any location. May have neuropathic pain from disease close to bone.

Ewing Sarcoma

38

3rd most common adolescent cancer. Most common bone cancer.

Osteosarcoma

39

Involvement of the bone marrow and CNS is RARE.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

40

Manifests as bulky extramedullary (usually extranodal) disease with or without demonstrable dissemination.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL)

41

Malignancy of the reticuloendothelial and lymphatic systems and involves B cells.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

42

Results from neoplastic proliferation of embryonal renal cells of the metanephros.

Wilms Tumor

43

Most common primary ocular malignancy of childhood.

Retinoblastoma