Flashcards in 8: Autism Spectrum Disorder Deck (22):
DSM-V criteria for diagnosis (4).
1. Persistent deficit in social communication and interaction in several different contexts (lack of reciprocity in interaction, failure to initiate or respond to social interaction).
A. Deficits in nonverbal communication (eye contact, understanding gestures).
B. Deficits in developing and understanding relationships, absence of interest in peers.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (stereotyped movements, fixated interests, hyper- or hyoreactivity to sensory input).
3. Symptoms must be present in early developmental period (may not be fully evident until social demands exceed capacity).
4. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or educational areas.
Among identical twins, if one has ASD the other is affected _____% of the time
What is the standard intervention?
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Early intervention and educational settings.
T/F ASD does not improve, but can be managed.
False. Some children do improve. Related to the recent intense services and programming.
Are identical or fraternal twins more likely to both have ASD?
On average, parents first become concerned at about _____ months of age but do not seek care until a mean age of _____ months.
How early can ASD be diagnosed?
12 months if parents and providers are alert or if the symptoms are severe. Difficult to diagnose before 9 months because symbolic language skills (i.e., pointing) are just developing. Also difficult because some children experience a regression following normal early development.
T/F There is a racial disparity in diagnosis of ASD.
True. Diagnosis age averages 6 for whites and 7 for AAs.
Parents with one child with ASD, have a _____% risk of having a second affected child.
T/F Diagnosis is made by clinical observation.
True. Based on behaviors.
What are red flags for ASD (5)?
1. No babbling by 12 months.
2. No pointing/gestures by 12 months.
3. No single words by 16 months.
4. No 2-word spontaneous utterances by 24 months.
5. Loss of any language or social skills at any age.
T/F There is a delay of about 1 year from presentation of first concern to receiving a diagnosis.
True. Parents are often told to wait and see and not to worry.
Prognosis is much more favorable if diagnosed before age _____.
T/F ASD is an emotional disorder.
False. It is a brain disorder.
T/F Early intervention, diagnosis, and management are critical.
T/F Children with ASD also have IDD.
Not necessarily true. Originally thought that 70% of children with autism had IDD.
Is ASD more common in males or females?
In nonidentical twins, the other is affected _____% of the time.
What testing might you order to r/o other issues before diagnosing ASD (7)?
1. Sensory (eyes/ears)
5. Metabolic (amino acids, mitochondrial metabolism)
6. EEG (seizures)
7. MRIs/other imaging (focal neurological findings)
What is the standardized screening tool for ASD and when should it be done?
M-Chat at 16 and 30 months, but do developmental screenings during all well child checks.
T/F Immunizations can contribute to ASD.
False. Etiology is unknown, but likely multifactorial. Genetics, viral infections, environmental factors, and allergies are considered.