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Simmons NURP 503 Exam 3 > 9: Case Studies > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9: Case Studies Deck (48)
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1
Q

Most common solid tumor of childhood.

A

Brain cancers

2
Q

1 cause of death among all childhood cancers.

A

Brain cancers

3
Q

What is the role of the FNP in brain cancers?

A

Awareness of s/sx. Manage multitude of potential late effects of therapy. Liaison between pediatric and adult care to help provide continuity of care.

4
Q

Brain tumor classification is based on histological criteria by _____.

A

WHO

5
Q

Most common are neuroepithelial-derived tumors. Among neuroepithelial brain tumors, _____ are the most common.

A

Gliomas

6
Q

Low-grade (stages 1/2) or high-grade/malignant (stages 3/4) glioma?
Juvenile piloocytic astrocytoma

A

Low-grade

7
Q

Low-grade (stages 1/2) or high-grade/malignant (stages 3/4) glioma?
Diffuse fibrillary astrocytoma

A

Low-grade

8
Q

Low-grade (stages 1/2) or high-grade/malignant (stages 3/4) glioma?
Anaplastic astrocytoma

A

High-grade/malignant

9
Q

Low-grade (stages 1/2) or high-grade/malignant (stages 3/4) glioma?
Glioblastoma multiforme

A

High-grade/malignant

10
Q

In assessing a 4 yo with headaches x 1 month, where do you begin?

A
OLDCART for headache.
PMH (seizures, migraines)
Meds
Family hx
Social hx
ROS
11
Q

Would this tumor be located in the suprasellar/chiasmatic, pons, pineal/midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia/thalamus, cortex, or cervicomedullary junction?
Visual field deficit, precocious/delayed puberty, anorexia, diabetes insipidus.

A

Suprasellar/chiasmatic

12
Q

Would this tumor be located in the suprasellar/chiasmatic, pons, pineal/midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia/thalamus, cortex, or cervicomedullary junction?
Diplopia, facial weakness, drooling, weakness, incoordination, dysconjugate gaze.

A

Pons

13
Q

Would this tumor be located in the suprasellar/chiasmatic, pons, pineal/midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia/thalamus, cortex, or cervicomedullary junction?
Upgaze paralysis, vomiting, nystagmus, diplopia, tremor.

A

Pineal/midbrain

14
Q

Would this tumor be located in the suprasellar/chiasmatic, pons, pineal/midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia/thalamus, cortex, or cervicomedullary junction?
Vomiting, ataxia, tremor, dysmetria, nystagmus, scanning speech.

A

Cerebellum

15
Q

Would this tumor be located in the suprasellar/chiasmatic, pons, pineal/midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia/thalamus, cortex, or cervicomedullary junction?
Movement disorder, weakness, hemisensory deficit, visual deficit.

A

Basal ganglia/thalamus

16
Q

Would this tumor be located in the suprasellar/chiasmatic, pons, pineal/midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia/thalamus, cortex, or cervicomedullary junction?
Seizures, weakness, disorder of language, encephalopathy, visual field deficit.

A

Cortex

17
Q

Would this tumor be located in the suprasellar/chiasmatic, pons, pineal/midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia/thalamus, cortex, or cervicomedullary junction?
Head tilt, Horner syndrome, weakness, dysphagia, dysphonia, torticollis.

A

Cervicomedullary junction

18
Q

Triad of headache, n/v, and gait imbalance is most common presentation of what?

A

Posterior Fossa Tumor. Posterior fossa is the midbrain, pons, cerebellum, 4th ventrical, medulla, and tentorium. Vomiting is often early morning vomiting. Early morning vomiting is related to nocturnal hypoventilation, hypercarbia, vasodilation of cerebral vessels, increased cerebral blood volume and increased CSF production. All while the child is lying down, sleeping. Head tilt or torticollis is present as well when there is invasion of the Luschka foramen.

19
Q

T/F The majority of seizures are d/t brain tumors.

A

False. Mostly d/t other disorders.

20
Q

In very young children who cannot tell you they have a headache, what do you look for with brain tumors (3)?

A
  1. Vomiting
  2. Irritability
  3. Macrocephaly
21
Q

What is the focus for the physical exam (8)?

A
  1. Fundoscopic exam
  2. Mental status
  3. CNs
  4. Motor skills
  5. Sensation
  6. Reflexes
  7. Coordination
  8. Gait
22
Q

What are you looking for in the fundoscopic exam (2)?

A
  1. Papilledema

2. Disc pallor

23
Q

What are you looking for with CNs (9)?

A
  1. Paralysis of upgaze
  2. Pupils mid-dilated and poorly reactive to light
  3. Convergence or retraction nystagmus
  4. Eyelid retraction
  5. Nystagmus in any direction
  6. Limited upgaze or upgaze nystagmus
  7. Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (involuntary conjugate eye movements of large amplitude and myoclonic jerks)
  8. Abnormal visual field abnormalities
  9. Cranial neuropathies (facial nerve palsy)
24
Q

What is a common presenting palsy with tumors of the brainstem involving the pons?

A

Facial nerve palsy

25
Q

In young children it can be difficult to test individual motor groups. How can you solve this problem?

A

Look for hand preference when grasping for objects.

26
Q

In older children, the presence of _____ is a sensitive test for extremity weakness.

A

Pronator drift

27
Q

Asymmetries in sensation can be clues to _____ tumors, _____ tumors, and, in the case of facial sensation, dysfunction of the divisions of the _____ nerve located throughout the brain stem.

A

Cortical tumors
Spinal cord tumors
Trigeminal nerve

28
Q

In the lower extremities, asymmetries in the patellar and Achilles reflexes are generally associated with a _____, indicative of UPPER motor neuron dysfunction.

A

Babinski reflex

29
Q

Coordination testing is extremely important in children who have suspected _____ and _____ tumors.

A

Cerebellar and brainstem tumors

30
Q

Classic _____ testing must be performed to assess for cerebellar dysmetria.

A

Finger-to-nose testing

31
Q

Classic wide-based ataxic gait, as well as an inability to perform tandem straight-line walking is indicative of _____ tumors.

A

Cerebellar tumors. Particularly those involving midline cerebellum.

32
Q

Hemiparetic gait with circumduction of the leg and asymmetries in the swing phase of the arms is indicative of _____ tumors.

A

Cortical spinal tract tumors

33
Q

Cafe au lait macules and axillary freckling raise suspicion for _____ and trigger fundoscopic exam and assessment for visual deficits (version 1) and hearing deficits (version 2).

A

Neurofibromatosis

34
Q

Ash leaf spots, shagreen patches, and facial angiomatosis raise suspicion for _____ and trigger head circumference measurement and fundoscopic exam.

A

Tuberous sclerosis

35
Q

What tumor location?

Early morning vomiting, recurrent vomiting, enlarging head (2).

A
  1. Posterior fossa

2. Ventricular system

36
Q

What tumor location?

FTT, anorexia (2).

A
  1. Suprasellar

2. Hypothalamic

37
Q

What tumor location?

Visual complaints, abnormal eye movements (4).

A
  1. Optic pathway
  2. Suprasellar
  3. Brain stem
  4. Spinal cord
38
Q

What tumor location?

Tics, tremor, movement disorder (3).

A
  1. Basal ganglia
  2. Thalamus
  3. Midbrain
39
Q
What tumor location?
Early handedness (4).
A
  1. Cortex
  2. Subcortical
  3. Brain stem
  4. Spinal cord
40
Q

What tumor location?

Facial nerve palsy (2).

A
  1. Brain stem

2. Cerebellar pontine angle

41
Q

What tumor location?

Hearing loss.

A

Cerebellar pontine angle

42
Q

What tumor location?

Precocious puberty, nocturnal enuresis.

A

Suprasellar

43
Q

What tumor location?

Head tilt, torticollis (2).

A
  1. Cerebellar pontine angle

2. Cervicomedullary junction

44
Q

Differentials for bilateral papilledema (4).

A
  1. Astrocytoma (tumor)
  2. Epedymoma (tumor)
  3. Aseptic Meningitis
  4. Bacterial Meningitis
45
Q

What is included in the workup of a suspected brain tumor (9)?

A
  1. CBC
  2. Electrolytes
  3. LFTs
  4. Renal FTs
  5. Thyroid
  6. Viral Titers
  7. CT +/- contrast
  8. MRI +/- gandolineum
  9. Bone scan
    Consider hearing test, lumbar puncture, bone marrow aspirate/biopsy.
46
Q

What must be r/o before lumbar puncture?

A

Hydrocephaly (via fundoscopic exam or CT/MRI).

47
Q

Most children less than the age of _____ will not have radiation therapy to their brain tumor.

A

3 (places child at risk for neurocognitive defects and other complications).

48
Q

Headaches occur in approximately _____ of children newly diagnosed with brain tumors.

A

1/3