Flashcards in 101 Lecture 10 Feb 26 Deck (43):
Ummayad dynasty 661-750
Expansions: Across Iranian plateau into central Asia; India; Tunisia; Spain
Damascus capital. Had been Medina
Superficial conquests: autonomy for tribute
Arabs employ those they conquer. Adopt the in place administrative systems.
Usually the culture conquers the conquerors.
Arabs willing to adopt culture artifacts. Music, food. Much of their own culture remains due to Arabs separating themselves from the locals. Language. Religion.
Made some decisions that hurt them in the long run
Hereditary rule to caliphate
Being Arab privileged: Islam religion of ruling elite
The clients of the conquered lands considered inferior. Mawali.
Clients chafe under this prejudice. Lack of access to administrative jobs. Even if they're Muslims.
739 major revolt erupted across North Africa
Ummayads never really regain control of that region
Appeal: offered a fairer Islaimic order in which Muslims, of whatever origin, would be able to participate on equal terms
Abbasids only manage to get partway into Norther Africa (up to modern Tunisia)
Rest left as autonomous city-states, the fruit of the 739 revolt
Abbasids turn east
Baghdad capital: "Baghdad" evoked opulence and splendour as far west as the court of the Carolingians
Samarra capital for 60 years
Marked the arrival of the Turks into the empire
Turks at first as army troops. Soon most of army is Turkish and of non-Muslim origin.
Samarra full of grandeur but a golden cage for the caliphs.
Caliphs resided at the mercy of the Turkish amirs who commanded the loyalties of the troops and their families.
As a result: growth of provincial governors' power and de facto independence by the late 9th century
Caliphate now respected on a symbolic level, but their power very limited beyond Iran
One successful splintering: Fatimids
Fatamids gained Egypt in 969
Shi'is now in control. "Protecting" the caliphs.
The confusion in the Abbasid empire gave an opportunity to the Byzantines, who reclaimed Syria
In Spain, Ummayad caliphate
A clan of Turks, the Saljuqs (Seljuks) "rescued" the Abbasid caliphs from the Shi'i "protectors" and asserting control over Baghdad and eastern Islamic lands from Syria to Afghanistan
New institution: Sultanate. Created to rationalize the situation.
"Muslim ruler whose assumption and maintencance of power by military means was legitimized by the dedication of his financial and military resources to defending the faith"
Saljuqs drove out the Byzantines from Syria
Leads to the tensions that bring the Byzantines to look to the west for help
In medieval period, Baltic Sea was linked with the rest of the world by 3 main routes.
1. East by way of Russian rivers, leading to Byzantium and the Arab world, and Eurasian steppes
2. Rivers flowing into southern shore of the Baltic, navigable far into central Europe, Poland and Germany. Supplemented in the Middle Ages by several road systems over land, especially in the west.
3. Through the delta formed by the islands of Denmark leading into the North Sea and linking the Baltic with a communication system, stretching from the North Atlantic islands via England and France to the Iberian Peninsula. Linking Baltic to Mediterranean.
High level of communication in and among Baltic lands
Baltic was a principle transmitter of goods between East and West
Henri Pirenne theorized that communication between East and West broke down in 8th and 9th centuries with the rise of Islam.
It has been shown that economic fluctuations in the Arab caliphate corresponded to fluctuations in the Frankish kingdom. Trade between East and West continued, but moved from Mediterranean to the Baltic.
Baltic was an intermediary between East and West.
Establishment of formal structures for trading companies, esp. Hanseatic League, which erected officers as far east as Novgorod and, by the 14th c. as far West as Lisbon
Baltic buffer from 1000-1500
Denominations of Christianity
Linguistic and ethnic groups
Merchants tended to speak Low German as a lingua franca.
Learned language Latin.
Baltic can be thought of as a frontier as well because at the same time it was characterized by peaceful convivencia and harsh confrontation.
Attracted many individuals from outside who saw new opportunities in the unstable situation. They tended to prefer confrontation.
Intermarriage between dynasties in East and West up to middle of the 12th c. indication of peaceful relations and common political alliances (Danish and Russian, Polish and Swedish).
Up to about 1100 people moved from east to west.
With advent of crusading age, movement shifts to west to east.
Northern crusades, as early as 1108, latest 1147 (call for, not end to).
Christianization of the Baltic lands did not just bring in Christianity, but new power structures, feudal agrarian systems, foundation of towns, various technical innovations.
In the 9th-11th c., the Ottonian HRE attemptd to convert the Slavs
The Slavs had been a threat to the Merovingian and Carolingian empires in teh 7th and 8th centuries.
Several major state groups emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries
Influenced by Byzantium.
Adapted Byzantine cultural models
Process of assimilation of the existing populations and social institutions.
Bulgarians continue to be a thorn in the Byzantine side.
Hungary formed by the Magyars.
Kievan Rus formed by the Scandinavians, building on earlier settlements.