101 Lecture 8 Feb 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 101 Lecture 8 Feb 19 Deck (42):
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1. Carolingian Renaissance

Planned program

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2. Revive Latin
Classical literature

Done to help the mission of the state: revive Roman Empire, Christian piety and deepen people's understanding of it.
Restoration of the Church as an intellectual force.

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3. Culmination of longer period of trying to save something from the wreckage of classical civilization

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4. Charlemagne surrounded himself with intellectuals

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5. Background

Cassiodorus
Rule of St. Benedict

By 6th c., literate population is overwhelmingly made up of clerics and even this number is small

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6. Liberal Arts
Trivium: Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric
Quadrivium: Arithmetic, Astronomy, Geometry, Music

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7. 550 to 750
Only 264 surviving manuscripts
All but 26 on religious subjects

Of those 26:
8 law
8 medicine
6 grammar

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8. Most stuff written on papyrus

From 400, beginning to change to writing on parchment

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9. Largest library before Charlemagne: 2 associated with Bede. 100 books each

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10. Education reforms
Latin
Spelling
Handwriting
Basic education (for all?) Definitely for clergy

Slide paleography

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11. Discoveries of the Renaissance thanks to copies made in the carolingian renaissance

9th c. 290 classical manuscripts
10th c. 150 classical manuscripts

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12. Crisis of the Carolingians
814 Charlemagne dies
One surviving son: Louis the Pious (814-840)

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13. Problems of empire really begin to emerge
Lack of infrastructure
Empire too large
Empire too diverse
Invasions

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14. Louis' problems
1. Invasions and lack of effective response
2. His sons
3. His personality

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15. Louis had sophisticated ideas about imperial rule
More of an intellectual, less of a pragmatist

Emperor must answer to God. Responsible for the spiritual health of the subjects.

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16. Believed in imperial rule

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817 divided realm on event of his death
Most of the land goes to Lothar
Rest goes to Pepin, Louis the German, and nephew Bernard

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17. Bernard revolts

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18. Took his rulership as a sacred trust.

In 822 he appeared in Church at Attigny covered in ashes and dressed in sackcloth
To ask forgiveness for the way in which the rebellion of his nephew Bernard had been suppressed (captured, blinded, died)
Felt remorse

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19. Public penance
Results in loss of prestige

Increase in power of church

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20. 825 second wife gives birth to a son
Charles the Bald
Complicates succession
Enrages older sons

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21. 829 Council at Paris
Charles the Bald given a share

Bishops declare a right to judge the king and his performance

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22. 831 another rebellion
Sons allied against Louis
Louis captured and forced to abdicate both by church and by Lothar

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23. Lothar so arrogant that by 834 Louis restored

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24. 840 Louis dies and new wars of succession

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843 Partition of the Treaty of Verdun

West to Charles the Bald: Neustria, Aquitaine, Spanish March
East to Louis the German: Saxony, Bavaria, Allemagnia, eastern Austrasia

Lothar gets the middle: Frisia to Spoleto
Most prestigious. Richest.

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25. Lothar's territory hard to defend
Western Front
Alsace and Lorraine.
Linguistic and cultural and political ambiguity.
Collapses quickly

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26. Immediate consequence: decreasing importance and relevance of imperial title

Louis and Charles divide up Lothar's realm after his son dies.

Italy left to one of his sons, who takes imperial title

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27. Charles the Bald claimed imperial title for 2 years

Rule undermined from within and without

Charles died in 877
Many counties largely autonomous
New dynasties
Weakness of central power and admin

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28. Offices becoming property

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29. Fortifications proliferate

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30. Not just internal issues: Invasions

Vikings

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Berbers
Magyars

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31. Vikings
No horned helmets

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Different parts of Scandinavia
Different destinations

Raiding, Trading, Settling

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32. Seaborn raiders
British Isles and Frankish empire
Plunder easy targets (monasteries)

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33. Why successful?
Opportunity of a weak empire
Tactics: maters of the sea
Ship technology

Not good at sieges

Knack for creating stable governments

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34. Why do they do it?
Overpopulation?
Land hunger?
Internal feuding and creation of exiles
Climate favorable. (Greenland too cold by 13th c)
Cult of personal valor

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Raids begin around 800 on England and Continent

Sack of island monastery of Lindisfarne 797

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Civil wars of Louis the Pious provide opportunity

Monasteries abandoned

Start wintering in 840

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870s and 880s figure out how to stop them: fortify bridges

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Lands to settle: Normandy Territory of North Men

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England
860s the height

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Partition: creation of the Danelaw

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Causes Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to unify
Wessex, under Alfred, becomes the sole Anglo-Saxon kingdom

Kicks out Vikings 930ish

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East
Attack Constantinople and Baghdad with no luck: so become traders
Walrus ivory, amber, arrows, swords, falcons, wax

Esp Slaves and Furs

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Found Russia
Kiev
Called Rus

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Explore to the West
Hunting and Pasturing
Tend not to settle where there are people
Greenland
Newfoundland

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