101 Lecture 7 Feb 14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 101 Lecture 7 Feb 14 Deck (51):
1

Oncourse writing reminder

Brief correction:
Many of you referred to the church being a binding force in society due to people sharing a common system of belief.

This is simply not so.

Even by 900, most people still only Christian in name only.

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Carolingian Empire

at its height, nearly recreated the western half of the old Roman Empire

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Carolingian Europe:
Rural
Technologically and culturally backward, compared to Islamic and Byzantine worlds

No cities

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4

Paris

7.5 acres
Wheaton: 400 acres

1 acre ~football field without the end zones

1 square mile is 640 acres

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Carolingian subjects scattered rather evenly

small, individual farms

Primitive farming methods
Low crop yields

Little surplus; little trade

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Carolingian world faced north

Trade on rivers: Rivers flow north.

Contact with England and Scandinavia over mediterranean and Byzantium

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Greatest achievement:

Formation of a cohesive western cultural identity

People begin to think of themselves as European (without this term)
Identified as part of Christendom

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8

Slide


Rise of the Carolingians

Under Merovingians, with no cities and little communication, governing had to be itinerant

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Merovingian rulers traveled constantly, conquereing lands

Putting down rebellions
Enforcing laws
Raising funds

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If king not around, there is no king

Royal decrees regularly ignored

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Need for loyalty

Kings constantly giving away their territory to local warlords

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Division of realm into petty states, based on number of heirs, exposed Frankish territories to internal strife

Later Merovingian kings: Do-Nothing Kings

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Royal authority degenerating in 7th c.

Power goes to many warrior families

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14

Slide

Chief of these warrior families: Carolingians

By middle of 7th c., had secured hereditary position of Mayors of the Palace for Austrasia

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Position to control the patronage system

Thus they acquire a strong body of followers

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By 687, Pepin of Heristal, patriarch of family, will undertake conquest of Neustria

De facto ruler of all nothern France

Merovingian ruler now nothing more than puppet

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Slide

Carolingians consistently had only one son.

Pepin of Heristal had two young sons when he died. Also a bastard, older son: Charles Martel

Charles took control of gov't in 714
Killed his half-brothers

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Charles Martel
Ruthless and effective
Forged links with church
Cause of christianizing Europe

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By 8th c., Christians (those for whom the faith was a living reality and who had no other gods but the Christian god) made up less than 1/2 the continental population

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Shortage of priests

British missionaries

Boniface (becomes St Boniface) most important: brings English monasticism and scholarship to continent

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Frankish church corrupt

Carolingians will work on reforming the church

This will end up culminating in the Great Church Reform

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730s Charles Martel begins a new policy

His power depends on ability to reward supporters
People of Europe feeling threatened by the Islamic conquests
Increasingly isolated from Byzantines

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Charles decides to confiscate the lands of churches and parcel them out to those loyal to him

Lots of land. New source of wealth for Charles

Drastic times, drastic measures

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24

Slide

Islamic threat to the south

Muslim expeditionary force had attacked Gaul in 732 heading for Tours, the greatest pilgrimage site in Frankish lands

Charles defeats Muslims

New hero of Christendom

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25

Slide

Charles Martel dies 741

Had greatly expanded and centralized Frankish lands

Left two sons
One goes to monastery (Monte Cassino)

Slide

Power goes to younger: Pepin the Short (r. 741-768)

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Pepin writes to pope

Tired of being power behind the throne
Shouldn't the one actually ruling be king?

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Pope Sacharias declares teh last Meroginvian king (Childeric) deposed

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Slide

Pepin repaid the pope

Marched his army into Italy and defeated the Lombards, who were attacking the Church

Gave the central portion of the peninsula to papacy as an autonomous state

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29

Pople spiritual leader
Also direct political leader now: Papal State

Problem: some of that land had belong to Byzantium.

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30

Slide

Scribe at papal court composes a forged document: Donation of Constantine

Legend that Constantine, when he moved to Constantinople, granted the pope dominion over the entire western half of Roman Empire

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Donation formed bases of papal political claims for next 500 years

Genuineness of a document in the contents, not the form.

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Carolingian relations with papacy grow closer under Pepin's son, Charles (Charlemagne) r. 768-814

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Slide

Carolingian popes and rulers legitimate each other's authority

Develops the idea of a superarching western Christian state

Charlemagne the leader of this new society: Christendom

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34

Charlemagne
Personal mission to complete the Christianization of Europe

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Two unshakeable believes

1. Christian God
2. his own duty to reunite all territories of former western Roman empire

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Charlemagne's unification was more than conquest
political, social, religious, and intellectual reforms

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Began by trying to subjugate the Saxons

In 3 years reduces rulers to obedience
777 swear allegiance
Mass baptism

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38

Slide

778 Attack on Muslim Spain
Gets as far as Zaragoza
Turned back. But that territory remained free. Became known as Spanish March.
Develops into county of Barcelona

Basque renegades ambush Charlemagne's rearguard
Song of Roland

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Slide

Expands to north and east

Saxons rebel again, revert to paganism
On one day in 782, he orders beheading of 4500 Saxon prisoners, then went to Easter Mass

Takes 20 more years to subdue Saxons

100 more years to complete their Christianization

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Conquers in the East

Easter March becomes Austria (Ostmark)

Hungarian Avars; Slavs in Balkans
Lots of wealth here

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Slide

By 800, of the lands once part of western Roman Empire, Charlemagne master of all but Spain, England, and southern Italy

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Slide

Symbolic climax of this reunification

Christmas Day 800
Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne emperor in Rome

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This Carolingian dominion and Franco-Papal alliance a fundamental turning point in European history

Independence from Byzantine Empire
Claim of equality with and succession to it

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West declared itself free of Eastern control

Subsequent medieval emperors define their political legitimacy and policies through relationship to Charlemagne; not the Greeks

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Slide

Charlemagne's real power more limited

Court remains itinerant

Constantly traveling

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46

Slide

Absence of a money economy
No professional civil service
No standing army or navy
No network of roads and bridges

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Carolingian administration

Blend of civil, military, and eccl authority

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48

Slide

Capitularies
Charlemagne's laws

eccl and doctrinal matters as well as taxation, diplomacy, etc.

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Creation of administrative units: counties (counts)
Non-heridatry
Merit-based

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Slide

Traveling court officials

Missi Dominici

Primitive, but first system of European-wide justice and stability since the 3rd century

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51

Daily Life

Largely does not change

A little more peace
A lot more pressure to accept Latin christianity

Slide

Divisions after death of louis the pious

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