Flashcards in 101 Lecture 9 Feb 21 Deck (31):
Stirrup a Chinese invention that comes to Europe in about the sixth century. Widespread a little later. Horses now militarily effective. Frankish charge. Horse, rider, long pole. Amazing force. But horses are expensive. Much training necessary. Only aristocracy can do this. Defined by being mounted warriors.
Feudalism a way to try to mobilize those mounted knights. Providing the necessary resources to outfit these mounted warriors. Lord gives lands to a vassal. Vassal swears to God that he will protect him and that he will come annually, usually for forty days, with all the troops that that land can support. Scris of agreements
Peace of god
Louis the Child died without heir in 911
A duke elected King of East Franks
Series of elected kings until Otto II (r. 967-83) took the title of emperor
Emperors continue to be elected
Localization in wake of invasions had hurt the church.
Loss of connection between local bishops and pope
Pope quite weak as a figure
There were multiple popes.
11th century. Henry III, HRE, brought troops to Rome to deal with the problem of multiple popes. Installed his own pope. Cluniac reformer.
Henry III. r. 1028-1056
Pope Leo IX. Reformer. Deposed bishops who had bought their offices.
Leo became pope after a string of popes who had ascended by nefarious means. Assassinations
Goal of reform movement:
Desire to restore papal authority and dignity
Eliminate lay control over the clergy: this a major theme within the population as well
1056 Henry III died. Young son. Gives the reformers an opportunity to move forward with removing lay control of clergy. Place to start is control of Papacy
Henry VI. r. 1056/1084-1106
After Leo, Nicholas II in 1059 issues papal election decree. Saying that the cardinals will elect pope. Ends up causing tensions with the German emperor
Alexander II 1061-1073
Nicholas II: gets the papacy an army.
Signs up the Normans in southern Italy.
Nicholas recognizes Robert Guiscard as count of Apulia. Legitimizes Robert's conquest . Pope also grants Sicily to Robert's nephew Roger, which the Muslims hold. Papal banner to conquer.
Pope a feudal lord with these Normans as his vassals.
Tensions with HRE explode with Gregory VII (1073 to 1085). Strong reformer.
1075 edict prohibiting lay investiture.
Henry IV rejects it and calls for the deposition of the pope.
G. excommunicates Henry and deposing him.
Dictatus Papae that lists the rights of the pope, including deposing and appointing emperors. Deposes Henry.
Does this with a letter and it worked. Henry forced in 1077 to go to pope's winter palace. Stands for three days in snow, begging forgiveness. Pope brings him in and hears his confession and absolves him
Three years later Henry defied Gregory. Gregory's excommunication does not work. Henry invades Rome. G dies in exile
Investiture conflict lasts many more decades. As time went on, clear popes had upper hand. Emperor's power erodes. Papal monarchy.
Officially controversy ends in 1122 with the Concordat of Worms
German emperors continue that they have the right to appoint popes. In fact most keep their own popes with them wherever they travel.
Rest of Europe increasingly less interested in the German side of this and more and more are siding with the papacy.
Reform popes now able to implement their reforms more effectively.
This reform victory meant that in the minds of average people, the church and the figure of the pope are becoming more in their minds the leader of Christendom.
In the Middle Ages, people did not self- identify by political nationality. Nation- states are modern creations. Instead, they identified by locality then Christendom. Previous to this, leader of Christendom had been thought of as the Holy Roman Emperor. Now people looking to the pope as leader of Europe. This only becomes more pronounced going into the 12th and 13thc
Reformers begin to set their sites on all of Christian society.
First monasteries reformed.
Then the papacy and clergy.
Now looking to how to reform society. How to order it so all are working for the good of God on earth. Some trying to apply the selflessness and piety of the monasteries to every walk of life, including the warriors.
truce of god