Flashcards in 101 Lecture 19 April 11 Deck (55):
The Political Calamities of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.
The Hundred Years War
Battle for Flanders
Flanders had grown to be the industrial center of northern Europe and had become extremely wealthy through its cloth manufacture.
It could not produce enough wool to satisfy its market and imported fine fleece from England.
England depended upon this trade for its foreign exchange.
During the 1200's, the upper-class English had adopted Norman fashions and switched from beer to wine.
Note that beer and wine were very important elements in the medieval diet.
Both contain vitamin and yeast complexes that the medieval diet, especially during the winter, did not provide.
the preservation of food was a difficult matter in that era, and the alcohol in beer and wine represented a large number of calories stored in an inexpensive and effective fashion.
People did get drunk during the middle ages, but most could not afford to do so. Beer and wine were valued as food sources and were priced accordingly
England not wine country.
so triangular trade developed.
Wool from England to Flanders
Traded for Flemish cloth
Taken to Southern France
Traded for wine
Brought back to England
counts of Flanders had been vassals of the king of France,
French tried to regain control of the region in order to control its wealth.
The English could not permit this, since it would mean that the French monarch would control their main source of foreign exchange.
A civil war soon broke out in Flanders, with the English supporting the manufacturing middle class and the French supporting the land-owning nobility.
Struggle for Control of France
The English king controlled much of France, particularly in the fertile South.
There was constant bickering along the French-English frontier, and the French kings always had to fear an English invasion from the South. Between Flanders in the North and the English in the South, they were caught in a "nutcracker".
Alliance with the Scots
French ally with the Scots, perpetual enemies of the English
English now caught in their own nutcracker
French nutcracker would only work if the French could invade England across the English Channel.
England could support their Flemish allies only if they could send aid across the North Sea, and, moreover, English trade was dependent upon the free flow of naval traffic through the Channel.
Battle for Channel and North Sea
French continually tried to gain the upper hand at sea, and the English constantly resisted them. Both sides commissioned what would have been pirates if they had not been operating with royal permission to prey upon each other's shipping, and there were frequent naval clashes in those constricted waters.
Charles IV died without a male heir.
But he had a sister, Isabelle, who was married to King Edward II of England
Their son, Edward III, was the grandson of Charles IV's father, King Philip IV
Legitimate claim to the throne of France
French don't want an English king.
Going through the male line, get Philip Valois
Becomes Philip VI of France
France was the most populous country in Western Europe (20 million inhabitants to England's 4-5 million)
and also the wealthiest,
England had a strong central government, many veterans of hard fighting on England's Welsh and Scottish borders (as well as in Ireland),
a thriving economy, and a popular king.
Edward was disposed to fight France, and his subjects were more than ready to support their young (only 18 years old at the time) king.
Real fighting truly breaks out in 1340.
The war is not one long string of battles.
Lots of truces intervene
Brings sense of national identity to both countries
Last hurrah of feudal warfare; development of standing armies
Joan of Arc
This war marked the end of English attempts to control continental territory and the beginning of its emphasis upon maritime supremacy
In England: peasant's revolt
In France: the Jacquerie
The focus on fighting while society as a whole being wracked by various disasters led to massive changes in society.
End to the feudal knight
chivalry grew increasingly costly.
Largesse became more ostentatious and a more important status symbol; many could not afford it.
The fighting aristocracy lost their importance because of gunpowder, infantry formations, and standing armies.
Many noble families were wiped out by the 100 years' war and the civil wars that followed.
The upper middle class was now buying up land, and there was less wealth in the aristocracy to support a large warrior class.
The kings were less dependent upon the aristocracy for military or bureaucratic services.
The economic recession in many regions impoverished the local aristocracy.
Three classes of aristocrats emerged:
The rich and powerful
The land-hungry and grasping
The small farmers and servants with little wealth or power.
Divisions in the middle class
A cleavage between the greater and lesser guilds took place, and there was sometimes civil war in the medieval towns between the "populo grasso" and "populo minuto." A gap also emerged between the guild masters and the workers, with the result that an urban proletariat emerged, and the modern division between management and labor was born
Collapse of the Guild System
Economy contracting after 1250
Response by guild masters
to restrict admission to master's status
to reduce labor costs by cutting salaries of journeymen and extend the years of apprenticeship
to lower working conditions
o reduce civil contributions and charity
to lower purchase price for raw materials
to take over work of smaller gilds
to switch to lower quality, lower cost products
to establish monopoly areas.
After 1350, markets began to grow smaller, and the powerful long-distance merchants had to lower their costs in order to compete.
They did so by producing their own goods, by-passing the gilds
Putting Out System
Merchants' agents would rent the necessary equipment to peasant families, sell them raw materials, and purchase the finished product.
Basis for industrial manufacturing until 19th c.
The merchants would concentrate equipment in a warehouse ("factory"),
acquire raw materials,
hire workers for wages only,
compete rather than co-operate.
This system was used primarily for manufacture consisting of several steps or dealing with heavy materials. It eventually developed into the factory system characteristic of the Industrial Era and which is still prevalent in the post-Industrial age.
The proto-capitalists of the later middle ages did not support civic services, so urban life deteriorated.
The workers' standard of living dropped, and this reduced their ability to buy the goods they produced.
By the 15th c., this contributed to an economic recession
Production was now uncontrolled, and cycles of inflation and depression became common. More production was moved to the countryside, and wealth concentrated more rapidly in ever-fewer hands.
Effect on the Peasantry
As a result of the recessions, the capitalists began to buy up farmland to produce raw materials for their manufacture (e.g., fields were turned into sheep runs).
A grasping aristocracy began to claim many feudal dues that had long been out of date.
Proprietors fenced in the lands -- woods, meadows, ponds --that had once been common property of the peasant communities.
Communities died, and their inhabitants were either forced into the indigent class or became salaried farm workers.
The fluctuations in population brought about by plagues, wars, and famines on the one hand and a high birth rate on the other also affected the structure of rural society.
Land-owners abandoned granting land in exchange for rents and services and turned to employing temporary workers for wages
he emergence of proto-capitalism and other factors in the later Middle Ages created a situation in which wealth concentrated in few and fewer hands. The result was the division of society into a small elite with wealth and power, and a mass of the population with neither.
The social structure of medieval Europe, which had consisted of three great classes distinguished by their social function was changed in basic ways
he classes were now distinguished by their economic power and were two in number -- the "haves" and the "have-nots."
Moreover, the medieval social classes had transcended national boundaries.
The fighting aristocracy of France felt a greater kinship with the fighting aristocracy of England than it did with its own peasant population. This had come to an end, and the population of Europe was divided into competing national groups.
The Great Schism 1378-1415
Avignon Papacy, 1305-1378
Seen as French puppet
Inquisition to silence critics
Loss of moral authority
At the death of Gregory XI in Rome, the cardinals were forced by a Roman mob to elect an Italian pope.
They chose Urban VI in hopes that he would be compliant to their advice. They were mistaken in this hope. Urban decided that both pope and papal administration should resume its residence in Rome, and threatened to reform the college of cardinals to increase Italian representation up to a majority in the body
French cardinals flee Rome
declare Urban invalid as pope
Select a new pope
No one was qualified to judge who was the true pope
There were still two papal claimants, and their rivalry led to increased corruption within their administrations and a decrease of interest in anything other than gaining advantage over their opponent. As time passed, the various reformers managed to settle on common principles and upon the way in which those principles might be put into action. They agreed upon the principle that the sovereignty of the Church rested in a body representative of its members. On this basis, they claimed that a general council would have the power to depose popes and address the other problems facing the church
Council of Pisa deposes both popes
neither one sees themselves as deposed
both excommunicate the council