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Flashcards in 101b GI Structure Deck (33):
1

What masses form the intracembryonic coelom?

lateral plate and cardiogenic mesoderm - hollow out to form a U-shaped tube

2

what embryonic structures separate the pleural and peritoneal cavities in early development?

septum transversum
plueroperitoneal membranes

3

what are the 4 primordia for the adult diaphragm?

septum transversum (central tendon)
mesentery of esophagus (diaphragm crura)
pleuroperitoneal membranes
muscles from the body wall

4

At what level does the septum transversum/diaphragm form in the embryo? Nerve supply?

C3,4,5 - with cervical somites
phrenic nerve

5

Diaphragmatic hernia - description, types

abdominal contents into thorax; can occur in infants from failure of pleuroperitoneal membrane
types - sliding hiatal AND paraesophageal

6

sliding hiatal hernia

most common
stomach slides through diaphragm opening for esophagus which displaces GE junction up

7

paraesophageal hernia

GE junction is normal but stomach fundus protrudes through esophageal opening with it's own thin layer of peritoneum

8

omphalocele

-congenital umbilical hernia of the midgut
-midgut fails to retreat back into abdomen during development
-covered by peritoneum

9

gastroschisis

-body wall defect
-can be in thorax, abdomen, or pelvis
-not covered by peritoneum/organs are bathed in amniotic fluid

10

midline divisions of the abdomen (top to bottom)

epigastric
umbilical
suprapubic

11

flank divisions of the abdomen (top to bottom)

hypochondriac
lumbar
inguinal

12

what ribs cover the spleen

9-11

13

what is the embryonic origin of GI organs?

splanchnopleuere (endoderm + mesoderm)

14

differentiate between parenchyma and stroma of an organ - location, origin

parenchyma = epithelial cells; endoderm
stroma = connective tissue framework; mesoderm
Both from splanchnopleure

15

foregut - artery supply, parasympathetic innervation, vertebral level, structures supplied

artery: celiac
parasym nerve: vagus
vertebral level: T12/L1
structures: stomach --> proximal dueodenum; liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen

16

midgut - artery supply, parasympathetic innervation, vertebral level, structures supplied

artery: SMA
parasym nerve: vagus
vertebral level: L1
structures: distal dueodenum to proximal 2/3 of transverse colon

17

hindgut - artery supply, parasympathetic innervation, vertebral level, structures supplied

artery: IMA
parasym nerve: pelvic
vertebral level: L3
structures: distal 1/3 of transverse colon --> upper portion of rectum

18

where do arteries supplying GI structures branch from the abdominal aorta; name arteries top to bottom and vertebral level

Anteriorly
celiac trunk - T12
SMA - L1
IMA - L3

19

name the SMA branches for the midgut (top to bottom)

(MRII)
middle colic (MC)
right colic (RC)
ileocolic (IC)
intestinal branches

20

name the IMA branches for the hindgut (top to bottom)

(LSS)
left colic (LC)
sigmoid branches
superior rectal (SR)

21

name the branches of the celiac trunk and what direction they come off (patient perspective)

1) splenic artery - left
2) left gastric artery - top
3) common hepatic - right

22

what branch of the celiac trunk comes off to the left; what does it supply?

splenic artery - left; spleen + greater curve of stomach (short gastric arteries and left gastroepiploic)

23

what branch of the celiac trunk comes off to the top? what does it supply?

left gastric artery - top; lesser curve of stomach

24

what branch of the celiac trunk comes off to the right? what does it supply?

common hepatic - right; liver (hepatic proper + right gastric for lesser curve of stomach) + greater curve of stomach (gastroduodenal artery --> right gastroepiploic artery)

25

Where do presynaptic parasympathetics synapse for the GI tract?

-Myenteric (auerbach's) plexus - smooth muscle contraction in muscularis externa layer
-Submucosal (meissner's) plexus - glandular secretion and muscularis mucosa

26

spinal cord segments for visceral sensory innervation of the gut

T7-9 stomach (7 letters in stomach)
T10 appendix
L1 left colic flexure
L5 sigmoid colon

27

3 anastomosis sites for venous portal-caval (portal vein first) and signs of portal obstruction/hypertension

1) left gastric-esophageal veins (esophageal varices)
2) para-umbilical vein - superficial epigastric veins (caput medussa on ab wall)
3) superior rectal veins - internal iliacs (hemorrhoids)

28

pancreas is derived from what?

Foregut
2 buds - ventral and dorsal

29

what does the ventral pancreas bud become?

part of pancreatic head and the uncinate process
main pancreatic duct

30

what does the dorsal pancreas become?

body, tail, accessory pancreatic duct

31

what is an annular pancreas

ventral bud encircles duodenum and causes narrowing

32

what does the common bile duct (cystic duct from gall bladder + common hepatic duct from liver) lead to?

main pancreatic duct from the ventral bud

33

where can gall stones can a back up of bile to pancreas leading to pancreatitis?

sphincter of oddi
major deuodenal papilla