10.30: Renal V Flashcards Preview

MHD V: Renal > 10.30: Renal V > Flashcards

Flashcards in 10.30: Renal V Deck (43):
1

What does the metanephric blastema develop into?

Nephrons

2

What does the ureteric bud develop into?

Collecting duct system

3

Are bilateral or unilateral lesions genetic?

Bilateral, unilateral cannot be genetic

4

What is agenesis?

Absence of something

5

What occurs in horseshoe kidneys?

They are fused

6

What is dysplasia?

Abnormal development

7

What is polycystic?

Cystic but without dysplastic elements

8

What is hypoplasia?

Small but no dysplasia demonstrated

9

What are enlarged irregular kidneys appearing like bunch of grapes characteristic of?

Cystic renal dysplasia

10

What is oligohydramnios?

- Lack of amniotic fluid due to agenesis of kidneys
- Urine is responsible for amniotic fluid
- Amniotic fluid responsible for development of lungs
- Leads to hypoplastic lungs
"Potters syndrome"

11

What is potters syndrome?

Hypoplastic lungs due to agenesis of kidneys

12

What is ARPKD?

Childhood "Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease"
- Enlarged kidneys with retained shape
- Liver cysts seen as well

13

What is APKD?

"Adult polycystic Kidney disease"
- More common than childhood recessive
- Autosomal dominant
- Huge kidney with cysts in liver as well
- Nephrons between cysts are functioning

14

Treatment of APKD?

- Transplant

15

What is often associated with APKD?

1. Hepatic cysts
2. Intracranial berry aneurysms
3. Mitral prolapse

16

3 types of cystic disease?

1. Developmental dysplasia
2. APKD
3. ARPKD

17

Only cystic disease without liver abnormalities?

Dysplasia

18

Only cystic disease with ureter abnormalities?

Dysplasia

19

Only cystic disease without reniform shape?

Dysplasia

20

What is acquired cystic disease associated with?

- Dialysis
- High rate of developing renal carcinoma

21

Which cystic disease has high risk of renal carcinoma?

Acquired

22

Which kidney tumors are presumed malignant?

All of them until proven otherwise

23

2 benign kidney tumors?

1. Oncocytoma
2. Angiomyolipoma
- Mimic malignant tumor
****Usually removed surgically

24

Characteristics of oncocytoma?

- Benign mahogany brown with central scar
- Usually removed surgically

25

Characteristics of Angiomyolipoma?

- Consists of vessels, smooth muscles, fat
- Vessels can rupture leading to hemorrhage
- Can be associated with tubular sclerosis

26

What is the triad of renal cell carcinoma?

"RCC"
1. Costovertebral pain
2. Hematuria
3. Large mass

27

Which section of kidney cannot give rise to tumors?

Glomerulus

28

Most common type of renal cancer?

1. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma 75%
2. Papillary 15%

29

Treatment of RCC?

- Surgery is mainstay
- Cancer is highly chemoresistant

30

Survival rates with RCC stages?

Stage I: 96%
Stage II: 82%
Stage III: 64%
Stage IV: 23%

31

What is VHL?

"Von Hippel Lindau"
- Familial RCC with early onset
- Multiple, vascularized cysts and tumors
- Have both renal cysts and tumors

32

Most common pediatric renal cancer?

Wilms tumor

33

Presentation of Wilms tumor?

75% have mass noticed by parents
25% have other developmental abnormality

34

Developmental disorders seen in Wilms tumor?

1. WAGR complex
2. Denys Drash syndrome
3. Beckwith - Wiedemann syndrome

35

What is WAGR complex?

W - wilms tumor
A - Aniridia
G - GU malformation
R - Mental retardation

36

What is Denys Drash Syndrome?

`1. Wilms tumor
2. Gonadal dysgenesis
3. Renal sclerosis

37

Treatment of Wilms tumor?

- Surgical excision
- If it has spread, chemo
- If not, not chemo but monitor closely

38

Prime age for renal tumor?

65 yo

39

65yo man with 5cm mass on right kidney?

- Schedule surgery
- He is at prime age
- Kidney masses are presumed malignant

40

Which tumor associated with short arm chromosome III?

Clear cell

41

Adult of pediatric renal tumors sensitive to chemo?

Pediatric

42

What are immature cartilage and tubules characteristic of?

Cystic Dysplasia

43

What are blastema, tubules, and stroma characteristic of?

Malignancy