11. Knee Problems Flashcards Preview

3rd Year - MSK Diseases > 11. Knee Problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11. Knee Problems Deck (24):
1

What are the common Knee Problems?

1. Fracture
2. Acute on Chronic Degenerative Joint Disease
3. Meniscal Injury
4. Ligament Injury
5. Tendon Injury

2

What should special focus be placed on, in the History of a Knee Problem?

1. Environment (Sport / Recreation vs Workplace)
2. Activity (Sport tackle vs jumping)
3. Energy (How fast and How heavy)
4. Systemic Symptoms
5. Chronology (Quick vs Slow, Previous Injury)
6. Hear / Feel a Pop/Crack
7. Swelling (Early (Haemarthrosis) vs Late)

3

What causes a Meniscal Injury?

Twisting Movement on a Loaded, Fixed Knee

4

What are the Features of a Meniscal Injury?

1. Painful "Squelch"
2. Slow Swelling
3. Painful to Weight Bear
4. "Locked" Knee

5

What causes an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear?

1. Forward Momentum
2. Leg Fixed +/- Rotated

6

What are the Features of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear?

1. "Pop"
2. Quick Swelling
3. Often able to Weight Bear

7

What are the Features of a Collateral Tear?

1. Lateralised Pain
2. Feel of "Crack" - Sharp Pain
3. No / Minimal Effusion
4. Bruising to one side

8

What are the Principles of a Knee Musculoskeletal Examination?

1. Look
2. Feel
3. Move

9

What are you Looking for in a Knee Musculoskeletal Examination?

1. Scars / Bruising / Swelling
2. Joint Line Irregularity

10

What are you Feeling for in a Knee Musculoskeletal Examination?

1. Effusion
2. Crepitus
3. Heat
4. Tenderness
5. Tissue Lumps / Defects

11

What are you looking for in Movement during a Knee Musculoskeletal Examination?

1. Passive and Active
2. Straight Leg Raise
3. Range of Movement
4. Ligament Testing
5. Dynamic Testing

12

What Rradiological Investigations can be done on the Knee?

1. X-Ray
2. Ultrasound
3. MRI

13

What is seen on an X-Ray of a Knee Joint?

1. Fracture
2. Loose Bodies
3. Ligament Avulsion
4. Osteochondral Defect
5. Degenerative Joint Disease
6. Lipohaemarthrosis

14

What is seen on an Ultrasound of a Knee Joint?

1. Tendon Rupture
2. Some Meniscal Tears
3. Swelling
4. Cysts

15

What is an MRI of a Knee Joint used for?

Clinical Confirmation
Note - This is not good for Degenerative Joint Disease or Mobile Pathology

16

What are the Indications that Surgery may be needed?

1. Failure of Conservative Treatment
2. Demands of Work / Sport
3. Problems with Daily Activities
4. Prevention of Further Joint Injuries / Falls

17

What forms of Non-Surgical Management are there?

1. Physiotherapy
2. Analgesia

18

What can Non-Surgical Management lead to?

1. Restoration of Function
2. Swelling Reduction
3. Range of Motion
4. Normal Movement

19

What surgeries are available for Meniscal Injuries?

1. Meniscal Repair
2. Partial Meniscectomy
3. Meniscal Transplantation

20

Who is most likely to get Surgical Repair of a Meniscal Injury?

1. Young
2. Sporty
3. Fresh Tears - up to 3 months
4. Healthy Meniscus (Red/Red or Red/White)

21

What are the Repair Techniques for a Meniscal Injury?

1. Open Technique
2. Outside - In
3. Inside - Out
4. All Inside
Note - This has a 90% success rate

22

What Procedures are there for Anterior Cruciate Ligament tears?

1. Full ACL Rehabilitation
2. ACL Reconstruction Surgery

23

What would the reasons be for having ACL Reconstruction Surgery?

1. Prevention of further injury
2. To get back to work / sport
3. Prevention of Osteoarthritis

24

What are the treatment options for Osteochondral Injuries?

1. Debridement
2. Reattachment of Fragment
3. Removal of Loose Bodies
5. Microfracture Chondroplasty
6. ACI

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