6.1. Rheumatology - The Science Flashcards Preview

3rd Year - MSK Diseases > 6.1. Rheumatology - The Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6.1. Rheumatology - The Science Deck (25):
1

What is Rheumatology?

The Medical Specialty that deals with Patients with Arthritis and other related Conditions
Note - this incorporates 200+ disorders

2

What is Arthritis?

Inflammation of a Joint or Joints

3

What are the Clinical Signs of Arthritis?

1. Tenderness
2. Swelling
3. Restriction of Movement
4. Heat
5. Redness
6. Systemic Features

4

What are the Symptoms of Arthritis?

1. Pain
2. Stiffness
3. Swelling
4. Functional Impairment
5. Systemic Symptoms

5

What are the main Rheumatic Diseases?

1. Rheumatoid Arthritis
2. Seronegative Arthritis
3. Crystal Arthritis
4. Connective Tissue Disease
5. Systemic Vasculitis
6. Bone Disease
7. Osteoarthritis

6

What are the functions of the normal Synovium?

1. Maintenance of Intact Tissue Surface
2. Lubrication of Cartillage
3. Control of Synovial Fluid Volume and Composition
4. Nutrition of Chondrocytes within Joints

7

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

A Chronic, Symmetric, Polyarticular Inflammatory Joint Disease

8

Where does Rheumatoid Arthritis primarily affect?

Small Joints of the Hands and Feet

9

What characterises Rheumatoid Synovitis (Pannus)?

1. Inflammatory Cell Infiltration
2. Synoviocyte Proliferation
3. Synoviocyte neoangiogenesis
4. Synovial Fluid containing Neutrophils (particularly during acute flares of Rheumatoid Arthritis)

10

What does Synovial Pannus cause?

Bone and Cartilage Destruction

11

What auto-antibodies are associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1. Rheumatoid Factors
2. Anti-Citrullinated Protein

12

What is the type of Rheumatoid Arthritis in which Autoantibody's are found?

Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis

13

What are the most common Autoantibodies found in Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1. Rheumatoid Factor
2. Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibody (ACPA)
3. Diagnostic Anti-CCP Assays (Recognise Self-Proteins)
Note - 3 recognises Alpha-enolase, fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen, vimentin

14

How is the prognosis for anyone who is Anti-Cirullinated Protein Antibody Positive (ACPA+)?

Less Favourable

15

What is the type of Rheumatoid Arthritis in which Autoantibody's are not found?

Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis

16

What plays a key role in Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis, and its Severity?

Genes

17

What genes are associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1. HLA-DRB1 - role in promoting autoimmunity
2. PTPN22
3. CTLA4
Note - these are complex and may involve many genes, there are many more than these 3

18

Other than genetic, what factor can affect Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Environmental:
1. Smoking and Bronchial Stress
2. Infectious Agents
3. Repeated insults

19

What Infectious Agents (Environmental Factor) have been linked to Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1. Viruses (EBV, CMV)
2. E. Coli
3. Mycoplasma
4. Periodontal Disease
5. Microbiome

20

What do repeated insults in a genetically susceptible person lead to?

1. Formation of Immune Complexes and Rheumatoid Factor
2. Altered Citrullination (Deimination) of proteins and breakdown of tollerance (resulting in ACPA response)

21

What is the Pathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1. a) Environmental Factors
1. b) Epigenetic Modification
1. c) Susceptibility Genes
1. Contribute to altered Post-Transcriptional Regulation
2. This causes Self-Protein Citrullination, and a loss of Tollerance in Immune Cells (B, T, Dendritic, and Lymphoid)
3. This then transitions to Arthritis

22

What is the Definition of Synovitis?

Inflammation of the Synovium

23

What is the Pathophysiology of Synovitis in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

1. Villous Hyperplasia leading to Infiltration of Plasma Cells, CD4, Macrophages, T-Cells, and B-Cells
2. This causes Intimal Cell Proliferation (Fibroblasts)
3. The Macrophages in the lining are Activated, resulting in the production of Cytokines and Proteases
4. Neoangiogenesis is induced by local hypoxic conditions and cytokines
5. There is insufficient Lymphangiogenesis so cellular egress is limited
6. This is a Self-Amplifying Process

24

What are the relative Levels of T-Cell Cytokines in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovium?

Relitively Low Levels

25

What to the T-Cells cause, in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovium?

1. A Shift from Homeostasis to inflammation
2. They Mediate B-Cell Activation
Note - They have Direct Cell-Cell Contact with Macrophages

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