11 Principles of Innate Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 11 Principles of Innate Immunity Deck (28):
1

What are the five types of infectious pathogens?

1. Bacteria
2. Virus
3. Fungi
4. Worms
5. Protozoan

2

What innate immune response is best at dealing with extracelluar pathogens?

Complement a
Opsonization
Ab neutralization (via B1 cells)

3

What innate immune cells are best at dealing with cytoplasmic infection?

CD8 and NK cells

4

What innate immune cells are best at dealing with vesicular infection?

T cell activated macrophages

5

What are the innate immune cells?

Macrphages, Neutrophils, NK cells

6

What are the main innate defenses?

Physical (Mechainical, Chemical, Microbial) Barriers
Complement (Alternative and Lectin Pathways
Macrophages and Neutrophils

7

What are the chemical barriers of the innate immune response?

acid
proteins: cryptidins, defensins, amphipathic peptides, lysozymes

8

What innate defense enzyme is secreted in spit and tears?

Lysozyme

9

What innate defense enzyme is inserted into bacterial outer envelopes?

Amphipathic peptides

10

What is the C3 convertase of the alternative pathway?

C3b,Bb

11

What is the C3 convertase of the Classical pathway?

C4b,C2a

12

What is special about complement markings?

Complement binding is permanent

13

What are the complement regulating enzymes?

Cell:
CR1
DAF
MCP
CD59 (binds MAC)
Plasma:
Factor H
Factor I (Degrades C3b)

14

What do macrophages kill with?

acid
ROS (NO is also a ROS)
Competitors (Lactoferrin binds iron, B12 binding protein)
Proteins

15

What macrophage produced enzyme binds iron?

Lactoferrin

16

What macrophage produced enzyme effects the major metabolism coenzyme of cells?

B12 binding protein
(reason sensory loss after infection: dorsal root ganglia have lowered coenzyme availability and sensory nerves misfire)

17

What cells are the first to arrive in the inflammatory response?

Neutrophils

18

What cells signal Neutrophil release from the bone marrow?

Macrophages and NK cells

19

What enzyme is involved in producing the oxidative burst?

NADPH dependent oxidase

20

What are the three types of PRRs and what are their overview functions?

Endocytic PRRs: Clean up dead cells carbs.
Signalling PRRs: Sensors for cytokine production
Secreted PRRs: Complement Proteins

21

What are two secreted complement protein PRRs?

C reactive protein (Alternative path, Cq binds)
Mannose binding protein (Lectin pathway)

22

How many hours after pathogen infestation does it take for early adaptive responses to occur?

usually 4 hours

23

What is the overview point of early adaptive responses?

Control of infection
TNFa makes clotting of region, inflammation sets in, migration begins

24

What are the markers of acute phase response?

Fever production
Complement upregulation
B1 cell antibodies form

25

What are the main cells that control viral infections?

NK
CD8 T cells

26

What activates NK cells?

IFNa and b (class I IFNs)
IL12

27

What do Class one IFNs do?

Reduce neighbor cell susceptibility
Activate NK cells
Upregulate MHC class I expression

28

What signal is missing when a NK cell kills a cell?

MHC class I (hopefully non-self cells do not express this)