11.20: Pulm III Flashcards Preview

MHD VI: Pulm > 11.20: Pulm III > Flashcards

Flashcards in 11.20: Pulm III Deck (51)
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31

Appearance of silicosis?

- Nodules of "Whorled" hyalinized collagen
- Nodules can coalesce leading to massive fibrosis extending to hilar lymph nodes and pleura
"Eggshell calcification" of lymph nodes

32

When is egg shell calcification of lymph nodes seen?

- Silicosis

33

What does silicosis lead to increased susceptibility to?

- Tuberculosis
- Silicosis suppresses cell mediated immunity and impairs macrophage phagocytosis

34

What can silicosis lead to?

1. Dyspnea
2. Pulm htn
3. Cor pulmonale

35

Disease often associated with silicosis?

TB

36

Disease often associated with coal workers?

Rheumatoid arthritis

37

Which form of Pneumoconioses is carcinogenic?

Asbestosis

38

Why is asbestos often used?

1. Cheap
2. Durable
3. Head resistant for insulation

39

Which type of asbestos is most dangerous?

- Rigid, rod like molecule that can poke hole through macrophage

40

What does asbestos lead to?

1. Interstitial Fibrosis
2. Localized fibrotic pleural plaques
3. Malignant mesothelioma
4. Bronchogenic carcinoma
5. Laryngeal Carcinoma
6. Pleural effusion

41

What cause malignant mesothelioma?

Asbestos

42

Hallmark of asbestos?

- Fibrinous "Asbestos bodies"
- Looks like beaded structure with nobby head
- Fe will sit on and coat the asbestos body

43

How much does asbestos increase cancer risk?

- 55x if a smoker
- 5 x if not a smoker
- 1000x increased risk in mesothelioma
***Family members are at risk through indirect exposure
***Can occur 20 - 40 years after exposure

44

Characteristics of Sarcoidosis?

- Multisystem disease of unknown etiology
- Characterized by non caseating granulomas
- Diagnosis of exclusion in which TB or fungus must be ruled out when granulomas are seen

45

What is a granuloma?

- Lymphocytes, macrophages that have fused to form giant cells

46

Clincial presentation of sarcoidosis?

- 90% with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy or parenchymal abnormality on chest xray

47

What leads to sarcoidosis?

- Genetic abnormality with environmental trigger

48

When are asteroid and schaumann bodies seen?

Sarcoidosis

49

Manifestations of sarcoidosis?

- SOB with dry cough
- Fever fatigue sweats
- Eye in inflammation: Uveitis
- Erythema nodosum
- Restrictive cardiomyopathy

50

What is erythema nodosum?

Inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous fat see in skin in sarcoidosis

51

Why is vitamin D hypercalcemia see in sarcoidosis?

- Granulomas produce enzyme increase conversion of Vitamin D to active form to increase Ca absorption