12-20 Flashcards Preview

Fundamentals of Radiology > 12-20 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 12-20 Deck (208):
0

garpu

fork

1

behavior established by custom or law, recognized and approved behavior

standards of conduct

2

propriety of dress, speech, or conduct

modesty

3

a mental position with regard to a fact or state; a feeling or emotion

attitude

4

effective communication includes

verbal facial expression other body language

5

maintaining privacy and reliance with entrusted patient info

confidentiality

5

garaj

garage

6

compositie body of customs, practices, and rules

law

7

law that arises from interpretation of our constitutions, statues, and admin regulations by judges

case law

7

bilik tidur

bedroom

8

a civil wrong, as opposed to criminal wrong, involving a breach of duty or standard of care that results in injury

tort

9

action was deliberately taken

intentional misconduct

10

occurs when a person has a reasonable fear of physical touch/injury as a result of another person's use or treat of force

civil assault

11

occurs when a person intentionally and inappropriately touches another w/o consent

civil battery

12

slander (spoken) & libel (written)

defamation

12

cawan

cup

13

occurs when a person is restrained/confined w/o proper authorization or consent

false imprisonment

14

action NOT deliberately taken

unintentional misconduct

15

breach/failure to fulfill a required standard of care; a medical standard of care is determined by the degree of care/skill a reasonable medical professional would have provided under the circumstances

negligence

16

Can negligence be a basis for tort action b/c even though you intended to help you actually caused damage by failure to perform as were expected?

YES

17

_______ as a basis for civil liability comes form English Common Law

negligence

18

For negligence to be found, the civil proceedings must establish the following:

1. what standard of care was owed by the RT to patient 2. that there was a breach of duty 3. that the cause of injury was the RT's negligence 4. that the injury to the patient actually occurred

19

Patient's consent can be ____, ____, or _____

written, oral, or implied

20

True or False: Even if the patient has previously given consent, they can revoke it at any time

TRUE

21

for consent to be valid:

--patient must be of legal age/mentally competent --patient must offer consent voluntarily --patient must be adequately informed about the medical care being recommended

22

"let the master answer"; this doctrine required that an employer pay victims for the torts committed by the employees

Respondeat superior

23

the person who initiates the lawsuit in a civil case

plaintfiff

24

person being sued in a lawsuit

defendant

25

the thing speaks for itself - this doctrine applies to a situation that suggest that an injury could not have occurred if there had been no negligence

res ipsa loquitur

26

who is responsible for the operation of the hospital?

hospital admin and medical staff

27

___________ is responsible for planning, developing, and maintaining programs that implement the policies and achieve goals esablished by the governing board

hospital admin

28

how does hospital admin due their job?

--organize admin functions of hospital --delegating duties --establish formal meetings w/ personnel --provides teh hospital w/ admin direction

29

director of radiology and radiology management staff have following responsibilities:

--participate in medical staff activities --establish an effective working relationship w/ the medical staff, etc --develop and approve all policies/procedures for the dept --review and evaluate the quality and appropriateness of radiologic services --advise the medical staff and admin of equipment needs, modifications, etc

30

What is the ultimate objective of the diagnostic radiology dept?

to aid physicians in their efforts to diagnose and treat disease

31

measuring of radiation exposure received by personnel in the performance of their duties

personnel monitoring

32

The recommendation of the _______ are the standard and they should apply (radiology safety)

National Counsel on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)

33

true or false: this is an example of radiation safety precautions: monitoring of radiology personnel, including monthly badge reports

true

34

true or false: this is an example of radiation safety precautions: equipment calibration and safety maintenece

true

34

To spill

Derramar

35

true or false: this is an example of radiation safety precautions: no rules for the safe use, removal,handling and storage or radioactive materials

false, there are rules

36

true or false: this is an example of radiation safety precautions: rules for protection of non-radiology personnel and patients

true

37

true or false no records need to be maintained of radiation exposures of individuals for whom personnel monitoring is required

false, records do need to be maintained

38

education provided by the institution in knowledge, info, and sills related to specific tasks, policies, and procedures

in-service education

39

term synonymous with quality control but usually used to refer to the monitoring and testing of imaging equipment, as well as the control of variables in the clinical setting

quality assurance

40

is a federal agency that is concerned about safety in the workplace

OSHA

41

3 important revenue-producing dept:

--radiology --lab --pharmacy

42

what is the largest single expense in a hospital?

film

43

a certificate issued by a review committee to the purchaser or applicant after the need for the equipment/expansion has been established and is well documented

Certificate of Need (CON)

44

the staff of a radiology dept represents __% - ___% of a hospital's labor force and cost

3-5

45

what is the most expensive capital item in the hospitals today?

major equipment in a radiology dept

46

what is the annual typical procedures breakdown of cost for chest radiographs%

30%

47

what is the annual typical procedures breakdown of cost for fluoroscope exams?

10%

48

pyelographic studies, what is the annual typical procedures breakdown of cost for

9%

49

what is the annual typical procedures breakdown of cost for of general radiographic exams?

51%

50

3 types of equipment service contracts:

1. original equipment manufacturer (OEM) 2. time and materials contract (T&M) 3. Independant service organization (ISO)

51

aquisition cost of the equipment plus the cost of maintaining it through its useful life

life cycle cost

52

radiographs that have to be repeated b/c of inadequate technical quality

retakes

53

when a film is processed, unexposed ______ is removed from the film when it's transported through a fixer bath

silver

54

an _______ recovery unit has a stainless teel, negatively charged cathode and a carbon, positively charged anode

electrolytic

55

medicare's system of reimbursement;payment is limited to a set amount allocated to a specific diagnosis

diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)

56

the gov't response to the high cost of health care; reimburses hospitals for tests/treatments for Medicare and Medicaid Patients

prospective payment system (PPS)

61

admin evalutation of RT's:

--observation of technologist at work (observe patient care, radiation protection practices, and how techs dress, etc) --Interviewing patients (communicate with patients through oral and written questionnaires) --interviewing techs (talk to the RT; conduct in-service sessions to help educate the employee)

62

solving problems by thinking all all possible causes and ruling them out individually

troubleshooting

63

problems with ____________ equipment is the primary problem in most radiology dept

film-processing

64

the temp of processing solutions should not vary by more than ___*F which makes film processing a critical operation

0.5 degrees F

65

devise used to expose films precisely so that each film will have the same desnity provided the processor chemicals, temp, and other variables remain constant

sensitometer

66

devise used to measure the density of a radiograph (the amount of light transmitted through the radiograph)

densitometer

67

most common problem with film processing besides temp variations is difficulty maintaining the proper concentration of chemicals in the processing solutions true or false

true

68

term used to refer to adjustment of voltage, amgerpage, distance, time, and other factors considered in the determination of producing a diagnostic radiographic study

exposure factors

69

the use of ______ exposure devices requires an extremely fine ability to position the patient

automatic

70

who is the judge of quality in radiographic images?

radiologist

71

as a student you NEVER pass a ____ w/o it being checked by a radiologic technologist

film

72

a term applied to radiation having sufficient energy to produce ions (i.e., displace electrons from atoms); x-rays are one form of ionizing radiation

ionizing radiation

73

Two Sources of Ionizing Radiation:

--• Natural environmental or background radiation --• Man-made radiation

74

true or false: Although background radiation varies from place to place it accounts for more than half of the exposure that the general public receives.

true

75

The use of medical and dental radiographs and radioactive materials to diagnose and treat disease accounts for __% of the general public’s exposure to human-made radiation

90

76

the amount of radiation required to redden the skin

Erythema dose

77

a quantity of x-rays or gamma rays that would produce ions in one cubic centimeter of air (coulomb/kilogram or C/kg)

Roentgen (R

78

unit of absorbed dose of any type of radiation (gray or Gy)

Radiation absorbed dose (rad)-

79

a unit measuring the biologic effect of x-, alpha, beta, and gamma radiation on humans (sievert or Sv)

Roentgen-equivalent-man (rem)

80

the amount of activity known as radioactive disintegration that a radionuclide gives off (Becquerel or Bq)

Curie (Ci)

81

what is the traditional units and SI units for: exposure

R C/kg

82

what is the traditional units and SI units for:\ absorbed dose

Rad Gy

83

what is the traditional units and SI units for: dose equivalent

Rem Sy

84

what is the traditional units and SI units for: activity

Ci Bq

85

In ____, Congress charted the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) as a nonprofit corporation

1964

86

The NCRP does:

• Provides information and recommendations in the public interest about radiation measurements and protection • Allows for a pooling of resources from organizations to facilitate studies in radiation measurements and protection • Develop basic concepts about radiation protection and measurements and develop the applications of these concepts • Make a concerted effort to cooperate with international governmental and private organizations with regard to radiation measurements and protection

87

the absorbed dose multiplied by the appropriate quality factor and measured in rems or sieverts

Effective dose equivalent (EDE)

88

No-threshold concept is

the belief that there exists no known level below which adverse biologic effects may occur.

89

ALARA

“as low as reasonably achievable”

90

Dose Limits: Radiation workers

max EDE of 5 rem per year

91

Dose Limits: General public

max EDE of 0.5 rem per year (1/10th limit)

92

Dose Limits: Students under 18

0.1 rem per year

93

Dose Limits: Pregnant women

0.5 rem per year (0.05 rem per month

94

Three main types of interactions with matter:

• Photoelectric effect • Compton scatter • Pair production

95

Photoelectric effect:

• Photon knocks an inner-shell electron out of orbit • All of the photon’s energy is absorbed (photon no longer exists) • The ejected electron is known as a photoelectron • The atom and the photoelectron together are known as an “ion pair” • Shows up as white on x-ray

96

Compton scatter:

• Photon knocks out an outer-shell electron out of orbit • Only a percentage of the photon’s energy is transferred to the ejected electron • The original photon continues but in a different direction (scatter) • The ejected electron is known as a recoil electron (this is secondary radiation)

97

Pair production:

• Does not occur in diagnostic radiology • Photon of extremely high energy (1.02 meV) approaches the nucleus of an atom • A positive electron (positron) and a negative electron (negatron) are formed • The positron reacts with an orbital electron, both particles disappear and create two photons that move in opposite directions (annihilation reaction)

98

a genetic material in the nucleus of all cellular organisms

DNA

99

The DNA molecule is less than __% of the cell so it is hit less frequently than water molecules

1

100

Basic Types of Cells:

Germ cells- responsible for sexual reproduction Somatic cells- perform all other body functions

101

Four Possible Results of Radiation Hitting a Cell

1) Pass through with no damage 2) Temporarily damage cell, but cell subsequently regains normal function 3) May damage the cell and no repair takes place 4) Kills the cell

102

The Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau states that

cells are most sensitive to the effects of radiation when they are rapidly dividing.

103

Lymphocytes (mature white blood cells) are considered the most

radiosensitive

104

. Cells that make up the lens of the eye, the ovaries, and testes are also extremely

radiosensitive

105

______ cells are the least sensitive because they are highly differentiated and do not divide

nerve

106

the time between the initial irradiation and the occurrence of any biologic change

latent period

107

occurs when a large dose (larger than 100R) is received by the entire body in a short period of time.

Acute radiation syndrome

108

Long-term effects may not manifest for periods of

one to thirty years

109

Long-term Biologic Effects

Somatic effects- occur in general body cells (cancer, cataracts) Genetic effects- occurs in future generations

110

Two sources of medical radiation exposure:

• x-rays- external source • radionuclides- internal source

111

Kilovoltage controls the quality of the

x-ray beam

112

Milliamperage controls the quantity

of x-rays produced.

113

An internal source of radiation is

radionuclides

114

are used in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and in cancer treatments in radiation therapy or oncology.

radionuclides

115

is the time it takes for the activity of that nuclide to be reduced to half of its initial value.

radioactive half-life of a substance

116

methods of protection from external sources of radiation are

time, distance, and shielding

117

The best defense for technologists for internal radiation sources is good ______because these sources can be ingested, inhaled, and absorbed through the skin

housekeeping

118

The exposure factors of kilovoltage, time, and distance are directly related to the _____of radiation exposure a patient receives.

amount

119

As high as possible __ should be used unless it interferes with the study. This allows for less ___(quantity) and a decreased skin dose.

kV mAs

120

rate of exposure is directly related to distance as a function of the_______ law.

rate of exposure is directly related to distance as a function of the inverse square law.

121

Inverse Square Law:

The intensity of the beam is inversely proportional to the square of the distance

122

Q image thumb

A image thumb
123

Where=  I1 is original intensity
  I2 is new intensity
  D1 is original distance
  D2 is new distance

124


Two correlations derived from the Inverse Square Law


1)  When the tube distance is doubled, the beam of radiation will have one-fourth the exposure rate
2)  When the tube distance is decreased by one-half, the resulting exposure rate is increased four times

125


In diagnostic radiology, ______is usually the metal used to absorb the harmful soft x-rays.

aluminum

127

_____are used to absorb scattered radiation that is created by the interaction of primary radiation with matter before this scatter reaches the film.

Grids

128

the restriction of the primary radiation to a limited area


Collimation

129


______________ contributes to fewer repeats by performing processor control and maintenance, film analysis, equipment evaluation, and dark room procedures.

Quality control program

130


Lead is most commonly used because it has a high atomic number (____) which makes it efficient in the absorption of scatter radiation.

82

131


Three Types of Gonadal Shielding Devices:


1)  Shadow shield
2) Flat contact
3) Shaped contact shield

132


Personnel Protection:


1) Utilize Bucky slot cover
2) Wear protective apparel
3) Put as much distance between you and the patient as possible
4) Utilize the shielded booth
5) Do not hold the patient or cassettes
6) If you do stand out wear an apron and do not stand in the primary beam

133


a holder containing a strip of radiographic film worn by personnel to measure the occupational exposure by measuring the degree of blackening of the film


Film badge

134

ethics is a discipline that deals with

morals ars they relate to behavior

135


patients presenting themselves for radiographic exams are first impressed by which:


personal appearance of tech

136

when a patient asks the tech what the radiograph shows about his/her conditions, the tech should:


tell the patient that the referring physician will have the answers

137

whichof the following behaviors owuld be considered unethical for a tech?


criticising the physician

138


if an instructor is regimental or appears distant, students should


take responsibility for their own learning

139

the techs first duty is:


the patient

140

techs who examine terminally ill patients should do which of the following:


simply respect the patients right of choice

141


some patient's require more time and attention than otehr because they are:


more sick than others

142


professional confidentiality means:


respecting patietn's right to privacy

143


moral and ethical conduct of individuals who are handling patients for radiographic exams is a responsiblity of


the student

144


an effective defense for the teach sued by a patient claiming negligence would be


the exam was performed in a manner that was customerary and accepted in the medical community

145


res ispa loquitur is a Latin phrase that means


the thing speaks for itself

146


what is the underlying motiviation for all forms of law?


ALL of the above:

to protect people and property

to proivde a means for correcting injustice

to compensate for injury

147


situations in which a tort action may be brought against a tech are:


all of the below:

imprudent conduct conduct by the radioloic technologist

bodily harm inflicted on a patient

invasion of privacy

148


conditions would be considered a breach of standard care except:


patient's condition did not improve after the test

149


law in our society is based on which


all:

state / federal constituions

statues of state and federal legisltatures

regulations issued by the exectuive brance of govt

150


laws are framed and shaped by which:


community values

151

community laws/values are


generally in agreement

152


patient info msy be given w/o the patient's cosnet to:


none:

insurance company

patient's employer

mediare

153


performance standars for the radiology dept are set by


cheif radiologist

154


hospital standards are set to confrom with


the JCAHO guidelines

155


what is primary concern of the hospital?


patient care

156


an organization chart is designed to indicate which:


all:

lines of athority

positions of personnel

areas of responsibility

157


hospital-wide committee that functions to maintain a safe working condition is the committee on


hospital safety

158


an in-service education program in radiology dept is


a requirement

159


radiology dept policies/procedures are contained in the


department procedures manual

160


person responsible for verifying the qualifications of the technial staff is


radiology admin

161


radiologica compliance eval is a function of


quality assurance program

162


standards for hopsital services are established by


JCAHO

163


what is the purpose of the certificate of need requirement?


to limit equipment and space to the community needs

164


staffing needs are computed by


all:

number of procedures/year

number of radiographic rooms available

type of procedures performed

 

165


the decision to purchase new radiology equipment is based on


the number of patiens who need radiographic service

166

cost of radiographic exams include the cost of:


all:

labor

film/development

equipment

167


silver from radiographic film can be reclaimed by:


recovering free silver from the fixer

168


cost of producing a radiograph is highest for:


personnel

169


tend to move radiologic servies out of hospitals and into clinics was accelerated by the govt


all:

PPSA/DRG

TEFRA

Medicare payments

170


cost of healthcare since 1995 has:


increased

171


guideline for staffing in a dept of radiology is ____ production hour(s) per procedure:


1

172

quality assurance is the responsibility of


all:

chielf radiologist

chief tech

each radiology employee

173


quality assurance involved all except:


the ethnic origin of the employees

174


what is the advantage of the pyramidial arrangment for dept admin?


economy in personnel cost

175


what is the disadvantage of the pyramidial admin arrangement?


communication from teh base to the upper level is difficult

176


evaluating quality in the radiology dept may include all of the follwoing except:


checking the patients code of ethics

177


troubleshooting is an activity for


equipment testing after malfunction occurrs

178


equipment monitoring is an activity involving


periodic routine equpment testing

179


film processign requires which:


all:

exact combo of chemicals

near-constant solution temp

controlled replenishment of solutions

180


a sensimeter is an instrument used to do which:


provide a controlled amount of light to the film

181


a denseimeter is a device for which;


measureing the blackness or density of the film

182

in diag exray which of teh following interactions will occur?


all:

modified scattering

unmodified scattering

photoelectric interaction

183


the roentgen unit is a meaure of


the number of ions created in the air

184


what is the filtration manufactured into the xray tube called?


inherent filtration

185


what do the letters RAD stand for?


radiation absored dose

186


when radiation interacts with matter and changes direction it is called


scatter radiation

187


which is a factor that will affect patient dose?


all:

filtraions

distance

time

188


which exam will give the patient the highest gonadal dose?


abdomen

189


the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau implies that sensitivity is greatest in:


all:

rapidly dividing cells

the youngest state of the organism

cells with the shortest life span

190


the basis for the NCRP's policies/regulations for peronnel and patients is:


ALARA

191


the general pop. is allowed to what fraction of the dose allowed for occupationally explosed people?


1/10

192


film badge worn by most radiologic techs measures:


amount of total body radiation

193


which are most sensitive of the body?


white blood cells

194


high speed intensifying screens are used for some exams b/c


the patient dose is reduced

195


primary concern in radiation to the gonads is to prevent:


genetic effects

196


sensititvity to radiation in humans is greatest


during embroyonic stage

197

198


allied health developed as a result of which


all:

specialization

advancements in science/technology

medical economics

199


nursing profession:


has specialized in many areas

200


medical technologist:


analyzes and performs tests for dianjosis an treatment

201

histotechnologists:


identify, mount, and stain human tissue

202


medical records admin:


plans, designs, and managest patient records

203


dietician does:


manages and administers institutional food service

204


physical therapist :


is concerned mainly with restoring function

205


occupational therapist:


develops and maintains a client's ability to perform daily living tasks

206


respiratory therapist:


administers therapeutic procedures for respiratory emergencies

207


EMT/paramedic:


administers basic life support and definitive therapy

208