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Fundamentals of Radiology > Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (118):
1

consists of the alimentary tract and certain accessory organs that contribute to the digestive process

Digestive system

2

Radiological important accessory organs of the digestive system:

1) Teeth
2) Salivary glands
3) Liver and pancreas

3

Peritoneum
The abdominopelvic cavity consists of:

1) A large superior portion, the abdominal cavity
2) A smaller inferior portion, the pelvic cavity

4

The abdominal cavity extends from the ____to the __________________________.

diaphragm , superior aspect of the bony pelvis

5

The abdominal cavity consists of:

1) Stomach
2) Small & large intestines
3) Liver
4) Gallbladder
5) Spleen
6) Pancreas
7) Kidneys

6

The pelvic cavity lies within the margins of the

bony pelvis

7

The pelvic cavity contains the:

1) Rectum and sigmoid of the large intestines
2) Urinary bladder
3) Reproductive organs

8

double-walled seromembranous sac that encloses the abdominoplevic cavity

Peritoneum

9

outer portion of the peritoneum; in close contact with the abdominal wall, greater (false) pelvic wall, and most of the under surface of the diaphragm

Parietal peritoneum

10

inner portion of the peritoneum; positioned over or around the contained organs

Visceral peritoneum

11

The visceral peritoneum forms folds called the

mesentery and omenta

12

What does the mesentery and omenta do?

These serve to support the viscera in position.

13

The space between the two layers of the peritoneum is called

peritoneal cavity.

14

cavity behind the peritoneum; contains organs like the kidneys and pancreas

Retroperitoneum

15

The ____ is the largest gland in the body

liver

16

Where is liver located?

upper right quadrant

17

The liver's base is on the ___ side, and the apex is directed ____ and to the ____.

right
anteriorly , left

18

divides liver into right and left lobes

Falciform ligament

19

Liver:
The right lobe has two minor lobes:

1) Caudate lobe- posterior surface
2) Quadrate lobe- inferior surface

20

Sitting transversely between the two minor lobes is the hilum of the liver, or the

porta hepatis

21

The ______ and ______, both of which convey blood to the liver, enter the porta hepatis and branch out through the liver substance.

portal vein
hepatic artery

22

The portal vein ends in ____.

sinusoids

23

Hepatic artery ends in ______

capillaries

24

the capillaries communicate with _____

sinusoids

25

True or False:
the liver receive arterial blood supply, it receives blood from the portal system.

True

26

Portal System:
Main trunk ----------------- Portal vein
Portal System consists of:

 veins of stomach
 veins from the intestinal tract
 veins from gallbladder
 veins from pancreas
 veins from spleen

27

The _______ convey blood from the liver sinusoids to the ________________.

hepatic veins
inferior vena cava

28

_______is the channel of elimination for the waste products of red blood cell destruction.

Bile

29

True or False:
Bile is only a secretion

False
bile is both a secretion and excretion

30

Bile as a secretion:
it is an important aid in the emulsification and assimilation of ___.

fats

31

Bile is collected from the liver cells by the ____ and either carried to the gallbladder for temporary storage or poured directly into the ____ through the ________________

ducts
duodenum
common bile duct.

32

The biliary system (excretory system) of the liver consists of the ______ and the _____.

bile ducts
gallbladder

33

The biliary system begins in the lobules as:

1) The bile capillaries
2) Ducts unite to form larger and larger passages,
3) Form two main ducts, one from each lobe

34

two main ducts of biliary system emerge at the __________ and join to form the _______

porta hepatis
common hepatic duct

35

The common hepatic duct joins with the _________ to form the

cystic duct
common bile duct or CBD

36

The cystic duct comes from the

gallbladder

37

The common bile duct joins the _______. They enter together, or side by side, into an enlarged chamber known as the

pancreatic duct
hepatopancreatic ampulla or ampulla of Vater

38

The ampulla of Vater opens into the descending portion of the

duodenum

39

The distal end of the CBD is controlled by the ______________ as it enters the duodenum

choledochal sphincter

40

The hepatopancreatic ampulla is controlled by a circular muscle known as the

sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla or sphincter of Oddi.

41

The _______is a thin walled, more or less pear-shaped, musculomembranous sac with a capacity of approximately 2 ounces

gallbladder

42

The gallbladder functions to:

1) Concentrate bile by absorption of water content
2) To store bile during interdigestive periods
3) To evacuate bile during digestive periods

43

hormone that activates muscular contractions to force the bile out of the gallbladder.

Cholecystokinin

44

The gallbladder consists of:

1) Narrow neck that connects with the cystic duct
2) A body or main portion
3) A fundus- broad lower portion

45

The gallbladder is located in a fossa on the _______ (_____) surface of the right lobe of the liver.

visceral (inferior)

46

an elongated gland situated across the posterior abdominal wall extending from the duodenum to the spleen

Pancreas

47

The pancreas is about _________ long and consists of a _____, ____, ____, & ______. It cannot be visualized by plain radiographic films

5 1/2 inches
head, neck, body, and tail.

48

True or False.

The pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine gland

True

49

If the patient is _____, they should have a prep done to better visualize abdominal structures

nonacute

50

The prep is generally determined by the facility, but includes:

1) Controlled diet
2) Laxative
3) Enemas

51

True or False:
Acute Abdominal preps are administered

False:
These are sick patients with a possible visceral rupture or intestinal obstruction or perforation.

52

Exposure Technique: In exams without contrast medium, it is imperative to maximize soft tissue differentiation throughout the regions of the abdomen -
You should:

 You want moderate grays (less black and white)
 If kVp is too high, small or semiopaque structures may not be demonstrated (gallstones)

53

Evaluation Criteria without Contrast:
You want sharply defined outlines of the:

 Psoas muscles
 Lower border of the liver
 Kidneys
 Ribs
 Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

54

involuntary motion

Peristalisis

55

The most commonly performed abdomen is the supine AP, called

KUB

56

prolapsed or falling down of the abdominal viscera

Visceroptosis

57

Supine and Upright AP Abdomen: aka

flat/upright abdomen

58

done to rule out free air, look at air-fluid levels, and to rule out infection; includes a flat abdomen, upright (or left lateral decubitus) abdomen, and PA chest x-rays

acute abdominal series

59

Radiation Protection

1) Shield gonads (even with good collimation) if within 2 inches (5 cm) of primary beam
2) If the region of interest (ROI) will not be compromised
3) If patient has reasonable reproductive potential.

60

Use close collimation:

1) To reduce patient exposure
2) To improve radiographic quality

61

The combining form cholecyst(o)- means

gallbladder

62

The combining form cholangi(o)-

bile ducts

63

The hepatopancreatic ampulla is controlled by a ____ muscle known as the sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla.

circular

64

The ____end of the common bile duct contains a sphincter that controls the bile entering into the duodenum.

distal

65

The distal end of the common bile duct contains a sphincter that controls the bile entering into the duodenum. It is known as the _____________

choledochal sphincter.

66

The largest gland in the body is the

liver

67

The narrow space between the two layers of peritoneum is called the ______________.

peritoneal cavity

68

The folds of peritoneum that surround and support the abdominal organs are called the ___&_____

omenta and mesentery

69

The inner portion of the sac that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is termed the ___________-

visceral peritoneum.

70

The outer portion of the sac that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is termed the ___________

parietal peritoneum.

71

During an ERCP an _____is passed into the duodenum under fluoroscopic control

endoscope

72

. “Spot” radiographs are usually taken of the pancreatic and ________.

common bile ducts

73

During an operative cholangiogram the surgeon injects the contrast medium directly into the biliary system. The ___ and ________, ____ projections are typically done during this procedure.

AP
AP oblique
RPO

74

The upright and R-lateral decubitus positions are used to demonstrate layering of stones in the _____.

gallbladder

75

The desired degree of obliquity for the PA oblique projection of the gallbladder is _____depending on body habitus.

15-40o

76

The oblique position used to demonstrate the gallbladder is the ______, ____

PA oblique, LAO

77

The CR is _______for a PA projection of the gallbladder

perpendicular

78

The midcoronal plane is placed perpendicular to the long axis of the grid for a lateral projection of the _____.

abdomen

79

The center of the cassette is positioned __inches above the iliac crests for a lateral projection of the abdomen done in dorsal ____position.

2
decubitus

80

true or false?
The pre-vertebral space and air-fluid levels are clearly shown on a lateral abdomen projection done in the dorsal decubitus position

true

81

Common indications for performing oral _____________include cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, and biliary stenosis.

cholecystography

82

A specific radiographic examination of the gallbladder is termed a .

cholecystography

83

A specific radiographic examination of the biliary ducts is termed a .

cholangiography

84

_______- is a combining form referring to the common bile duct.

Choledocho

85

The contrast medium for oral cholecystography is given to the patient _____ hours after the evening meal.

2-3

86

The ____position is the preferred position for the scout radiograph of the gallbladder.

prone

87

The cassette size that should be used for radiographs of the biliary tract and gallbladder is the__________

8 x 10.

88

The cassette is centered for a ___gallbladder radiograph depending on the body habitus.

PA

89

The respiration phase for all projections of the biliary tract or gallbladder is ____.

expiration

90

During an examination of the gallbladder and biliary tract the exposure should be delayed for __ seconds after cessation of respiration to permit peristaltic action to subside.

2

91

A patient should lie in the left lateral position _____ minutes before the radiograph is made. This is often necessary to demonstrate small amounts of intraperitoneal gas in patients with acute abdomen.

10-20

92

_____ level is one of the primary reasons a left lateral decubitus abdominal radiograph is performed.

Air-fluid

93

AP, lateral decubitus and a PA, upright are two projections of the abdomen in which the x-ray beam is placed in the _____position.

horizontal

94

The respiration phase for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the left lateral decubitus position is ____.

expiration

95

The center of the cassette is positioned ___-inches above the iliac crests for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the left lateral decubitus position.

2

96

The respiration phase for an AP or PA abdominal radiograph done in the upright position is .

expiration

97

The center of the cassette is positioned 2 inches above the______ for an upright PA abdominal radiograph.

iliac crests

98

The CR is _____for an AP abdominal radiograph.

perpendicular

99

The respiration phase for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the ____position is expiration.

supine

100

The center of the cassette should be positioned 2 inches above the iliac crests for an ___ _____radiograph done in the upright position

AP abdominal

101

The center of the cassette should be positioned at the iliac crests for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the _____position.

supine

102

If a patient is unable to stand for an upright AP abdominal radiograph, the ____ _____ position should be used.

dorsal decubitus

103

The most commonly performed abdominal examination is referred to as a .

KUB

104

Prime considerations in producing an optimal radiograph of the abdomen include explaining the breathing procedures to the patient and not starting the exposure for ___________ after suspension of respiration.

1 to 2 seconds

105

Functions of the gallbladder include storage of ____&_____

bile and concentration of bile.

106

The pancreas produces ___, ____, & ____

insulin, glucagons, and pancreatic juice.

107

The spleen produces _____and stores and removes dead red blood cells.

lymphocytes

108

The technical factors for an abdominal radiograph should be set to produce ___ ____ latitude.

moderately wide

109

A properly exposed abdominal radiograph will exhibit the psoas muscles, the lower border of the liver, and the transverse processes of the _______

lumbar vertebrae.

110

The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and together they enter a chamber known as the hepatopancreatic ____.

ampulla

111

The common hepatic duct and the cystic duct join together to form the ___________

common bile duct.

112

The two main ___ ____join to form the common hepatic duct

hepatic ducts

113

The radiologically important primary function of the liver is the formation of .

bile

114

The hepatic artery and portal vein convey blood to the .

liver

115

The liver lies in the ___ ___ ___

upper right quadrant

116

The serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic walls is called the

peritoneum

117

what organs lay in the pelvic cavity

bladder, anus and reproductive system.

118

what organs lay in the Abdominal cavity

kidneys, ureters, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.