Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (118):
consists of the alimentary tract and certain accessory organs that contribute to the digestive process
Radiological important accessory organs of the digestive system:
2) Salivary glands
3) Liver and pancreas
The abdominopelvic cavity consists of:
1) A large superior portion, the abdominal cavity
2) A smaller inferior portion, the pelvic cavity
The abdominal cavity extends from the ____to the __________________________.
diaphragm , superior aspect of the bony pelvis
The abdominal cavity consists of:
2) Small & large intestines
The pelvic cavity lies within the margins of the
The pelvic cavity contains the:
1) Rectum and sigmoid of the large intestines
2) Urinary bladder
3) Reproductive organs
double-walled seromembranous sac that encloses the abdominoplevic cavity
outer portion of the peritoneum; in close contact with the abdominal wall, greater (false) pelvic wall, and most of the under surface of the diaphragm
inner portion of the peritoneum; positioned over or around the contained organs
The visceral peritoneum forms folds called the
mesentery and omenta
What does the mesentery and omenta do?
These serve to support the viscera in position.
The space between the two layers of the peritoneum is called
cavity behind the peritoneum; contains organs like the kidneys and pancreas
The ____ is the largest gland in the body
Where is liver located?
upper right quadrant
The liver's base is on the ___ side, and the apex is directed ____ and to the ____.
anteriorly , left
divides liver into right and left lobes
The right lobe has two minor lobes:
1) Caudate lobe- posterior surface
2) Quadrate lobe- inferior surface
Sitting transversely between the two minor lobes is the hilum of the liver, or the
The ______ and ______, both of which convey blood to the liver, enter the porta hepatis and branch out through the liver substance.
The portal vein ends in ____.
Hepatic artery ends in ______
the capillaries communicate with _____
True or False:
the liver receive arterial blood supply, it receives blood from the portal system.
Main trunk ----------------- Portal vein
Portal System consists of:
veins of stomach
veins from the intestinal tract
veins from gallbladder
veins from pancreas
veins from spleen
The _______ convey blood from the liver sinusoids to the ________________.
inferior vena cava
_______is the channel of elimination for the waste products of red blood cell destruction.
True or False:
Bile is only a secretion
bile is both a secretion and excretion
Bile as a secretion:
it is an important aid in the emulsification and assimilation of ___.
Bile is collected from the liver cells by the ____ and either carried to the gallbladder for temporary storage or poured directly into the ____ through the ________________
common bile duct.
The biliary system (excretory system) of the liver consists of the ______ and the _____.
The biliary system begins in the lobules as:
1) The bile capillaries
2) Ducts unite to form larger and larger passages,
3) Form two main ducts, one from each lobe
two main ducts of biliary system emerge at the __________ and join to form the _______
common hepatic duct
The common hepatic duct joins with the _________ to form the
common bile duct or CBD
The cystic duct comes from the
The common bile duct joins the _______. They enter together, or side by side, into an enlarged chamber known as the
hepatopancreatic ampulla or ampulla of Vater
The ampulla of Vater opens into the descending portion of the
The distal end of the CBD is controlled by the ______________ as it enters the duodenum
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is controlled by a circular muscle known as the
sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla or sphincter of Oddi.
The _______is a thin walled, more or less pear-shaped, musculomembranous sac with a capacity of approximately 2 ounces
The gallbladder functions to:
1) Concentrate bile by absorption of water content
2) To store bile during interdigestive periods
3) To evacuate bile during digestive periods
hormone that activates muscular contractions to force the bile out of the gallbladder.
The gallbladder consists of:
1) Narrow neck that connects with the cystic duct
2) A body or main portion
3) A fundus- broad lower portion
The gallbladder is located in a fossa on the _______ (_____) surface of the right lobe of the liver.
an elongated gland situated across the posterior abdominal wall extending from the duodenum to the spleen
The pancreas is about _________ long and consists of a _____, ____, ____, & ______. It cannot be visualized by plain radiographic films
5 1/2 inches
head, neck, body, and tail.
True or False.
The pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine gland
If the patient is _____, they should have a prep done to better visualize abdominal structures
The prep is generally determined by the facility, but includes:
1) Controlled diet
True or False:
Acute Abdominal preps are administered
These are sick patients with a possible visceral rupture or intestinal obstruction or perforation.
Exposure Technique: In exams without contrast medium, it is imperative to maximize soft tissue differentiation throughout the regions of the abdomen -
You want moderate grays (less black and white)
If kVp is too high, small or semiopaque structures may not be demonstrated (gallstones)
Evaluation Criteria without Contrast:
You want sharply defined outlines of the:
Lower border of the liver
Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
The most commonly performed abdomen is the supine AP, called
prolapsed or falling down of the abdominal viscera
Supine and Upright AP Abdomen: aka
done to rule out free air, look at air-fluid levels, and to rule out infection; includes a flat abdomen, upright (or left lateral decubitus) abdomen, and PA chest x-rays
acute abdominal series
1) Shield gonads (even with good collimation) if within 2 inches (5 cm) of primary beam
2) If the region of interest (ROI) will not be compromised
3) If patient has reasonable reproductive potential.
Use close collimation:
1) To reduce patient exposure
2) To improve radiographic quality
The combining form cholecyst(o)- means
The combining form cholangi(o)-
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is controlled by a ____ muscle known as the sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
The ____end of the common bile duct contains a sphincter that controls the bile entering into the duodenum.
The distal end of the common bile duct contains a sphincter that controls the bile entering into the duodenum. It is known as the _____________
The largest gland in the body is the
The narrow space between the two layers of peritoneum is called the ______________.
The folds of peritoneum that surround and support the abdominal organs are called the ___&_____
omenta and mesentery
The inner portion of the sac that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is termed the ___________-
The outer portion of the sac that lines the abdominopelvic cavity is termed the ___________
During an ERCP an _____is passed into the duodenum under fluoroscopic control
. “Spot” radiographs are usually taken of the pancreatic and ________.
common bile ducts
During an operative cholangiogram the surgeon injects the contrast medium directly into the biliary system. The ___ and ________, ____ projections are typically done during this procedure.
The upright and R-lateral decubitus positions are used to demonstrate layering of stones in the _____.
The desired degree of obliquity for the PA oblique projection of the gallbladder is _____depending on body habitus.
The oblique position used to demonstrate the gallbladder is the ______, ____
PA oblique, LAO
The CR is _______for a PA projection of the gallbladder
The midcoronal plane is placed perpendicular to the long axis of the grid for a lateral projection of the _____.
The center of the cassette is positioned __inches above the iliac crests for a lateral projection of the abdomen done in dorsal ____position.
true or false?
The pre-vertebral space and air-fluid levels are clearly shown on a lateral abdomen projection done in the dorsal decubitus position
Common indications for performing oral _____________include cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, and biliary stenosis.
A specific radiographic examination of the gallbladder is termed a .
A specific radiographic examination of the biliary ducts is termed a .
_______- is a combining form referring to the common bile duct.
The contrast medium for oral cholecystography is given to the patient _____ hours after the evening meal.
The ____position is the preferred position for the scout radiograph of the gallbladder.
The cassette size that should be used for radiographs of the biliary tract and gallbladder is the__________
8 x 10.
The cassette is centered for a ___gallbladder radiograph depending on the body habitus.
The respiration phase for all projections of the biliary tract or gallbladder is ____.
During an examination of the gallbladder and biliary tract the exposure should be delayed for __ seconds after cessation of respiration to permit peristaltic action to subside.
A patient should lie in the left lateral position _____ minutes before the radiograph is made. This is often necessary to demonstrate small amounts of intraperitoneal gas in patients with acute abdomen.
_____ level is one of the primary reasons a left lateral decubitus abdominal radiograph is performed.
AP, lateral decubitus and a PA, upright are two projections of the abdomen in which the x-ray beam is placed in the _____position.
The respiration phase for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the left lateral decubitus position is ____.
The center of the cassette is positioned ___-inches above the iliac crests for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the left lateral decubitus position.
The respiration phase for an AP or PA abdominal radiograph done in the upright position is .
The center of the cassette is positioned 2 inches above the______ for an upright PA abdominal radiograph.
The CR is _____for an AP abdominal radiograph.
The respiration phase for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the ____position is expiration.
The center of the cassette should be positioned 2 inches above the iliac crests for an ___ _____radiograph done in the upright position
The center of the cassette should be positioned at the iliac crests for an AP abdominal radiograph done in the _____position.
If a patient is unable to stand for an upright AP abdominal radiograph, the ____ _____ position should be used.
The most commonly performed abdominal examination is referred to as a .
Prime considerations in producing an optimal radiograph of the abdomen include explaining the breathing procedures to the patient and not starting the exposure for ___________ after suspension of respiration.
1 to 2 seconds
Functions of the gallbladder include storage of ____&_____
bile and concentration of bile.
The pancreas produces ___, ____, & ____
insulin, glucagons, and pancreatic juice.
The spleen produces _____and stores and removes dead red blood cells.
The technical factors for an abdominal radiograph should be set to produce ___ ____ latitude.
A properly exposed abdominal radiograph will exhibit the psoas muscles, the lower border of the liver, and the transverse processes of the _______
The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct join and together they enter a chamber known as the hepatopancreatic ____.
The common hepatic duct and the cystic duct join together to form the ___________
common bile duct.
The two main ___ ____join to form the common hepatic duct
The radiologically important primary function of the liver is the formation of .
The hepatic artery and portal vein convey blood to the .
The liver lies in the ___ ___ ___
upper right quadrant
The serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic walls is called the
what organs lay in the pelvic cavity
bladder, anus and reproductive system.