Flashcards in 12. Limbic System and Hypothalamus Deck (39)
What does the hypothalamus control?
Fluid and electrolyte balance
What inputs are brought to the hypothalamus via the blood?
Hormones: growth, catecholamines, sex hormones
Chemical: pH, glucose
Physical: temperature, osmolarity
What are the neural inputs to the hypothalamus?
Nucleus solitarius in the medulla: barorecptors, chemoreceptors
Reticular formation in pons and medulla: alertness and arousal
What hypothalamic outputs are in the blood?
Direct hormone release (ADH, oxytocin)
Stimulation of pituitary (hypophyseal portal system)
What neural outputs does the hypothalamus have?
Which hypothalamic nuclei are in contact with the posterior pituitary?
What is produced in supraoptic nuclei?
What are supraoptic nuclei stimulated by?
What do paraventricular nuclei produce?
Which hypothalamic nuclei releases trophic hormones for the anterior pituitary?
What is Cushing's syndrome?
What is Addison's disease?
What can the pressure of a hypothalamic/pituitary tumour cause?
Compression of the optic chiasma
Bilateral hemianopsia (visual field loss)
What part of the embryonic brain is the hypothalamus part of?
What part of the embryonic brain is the limbic system from?
Junction of the diencephalon and telencephalon
What structures are contained in the limbic system?
Where are the mammillary bodies found?
Inferior surface of hypothalamus
Between brainstem and cerebrum
What is the function of the mammillary bodies?
Short term memory
What does the fornix connect?
Mammillary bodies to the hippocampus
Where does decussation occur in the fornix?
Where is the hippocampus?
Under inferior horn of the lateral ventricle
What is the function of the hippocampus?
Making new memories
What is the name for the 3 layers of cells in the hippocampus?
What is Alzheimer's caused by?
Cortical degeneration, especially in the hippocampus
Where is the amygdala found?
Anterior to tip of the hippocampus
What does stimulation of the amygdala cause?
Intense emotions: fear and rage
What is the result of damage to the amygdala?
What does stimulation of the nucleus accumbens result in?
Feeling of wellbeing
How does cocaine work?
Inhibits reuptake of dopamine
Dopamine floods the medial forebrain