12. Limbic System and Hypothalamus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 12. Limbic System and Hypothalamus Deck (39)
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1

What does the hypothalamus control?

Fluid and electrolyte balance
Food ingestion
Thermoregulation
Reproduction
Immune responses
Circadian rhythm

2

What inputs are brought to the hypothalamus via the blood?

Hormones: growth, catecholamines, sex hormones
Chemical: pH, glucose
Physical: temperature, osmolarity

3

What are the neural inputs to the hypothalamus?

Nucleus solitarius in the medulla: barorecptors, chemoreceptors
Reticular formation in pons and medulla: alertness and arousal

4

What hypothalamic outputs are in the blood?

Direct hormone release (ADH, oxytocin)
Stimulation of pituitary (hypophyseal portal system)

5

What neural outputs does the hypothalamus have?

Autonomic effects
Limbic system

6

Which hypothalamic nuclei are in contact with the posterior pituitary?

Supraoptic
Paraventricular

7

What is produced in supraoptic nuclei?

ADH

8

What are supraoptic nuclei stimulated by?

Increased osmolarity

9

What do paraventricular nuclei produce?

Oxytocin

10

Which hypothalamic nuclei releases trophic hormones for the anterior pituitary?

Median eminence

11

What is Cushing's syndrome?

Excess cortisol

12

What is Addison's disease?

Adrenal insufficiency

13

What can the pressure of a hypothalamic/pituitary tumour cause?

Compression of the optic chiasma
Bilateral hemianopsia (visual field loss)

14

What part of the embryonic brain is the hypothalamus part of?

Diencephalon

15

What part of the embryonic brain is the limbic system from?

Junction of the diencephalon and telencephalon

16

What structures are contained in the limbic system?

Cingulate gyrus
Mammillary bodies
Fornix
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Septal nuclei

17

Where are the mammillary bodies found?

Inferior surface of hypothalamus
Between brainstem and cerebrum

18

What is the function of the mammillary bodies?

Short term memory
Smell
Direction

19

What does the fornix connect?

Mammillary bodies to the hippocampus

20

Where does decussation occur in the fornix?

Crus

21

Where is the hippocampus?

Temporal lobe
Under inferior horn of the lateral ventricle

22

What is the function of the hippocampus?

Making new memories

23

What is the name for the 3 layers of cells in the hippocampus?

Allocortex

24

What is Alzheimer's caused by?

Cortical degeneration, especially in the hippocampus

25

Where is the amygdala found?

Anterior to tip of the hippocampus

26

What does stimulation of the amygdala cause?

Intense emotions: fear and rage

27

What is the result of damage to the amygdala?

Calmness

28

What does stimulation of the nucleus accumbens result in?

Dopaminergic activity
Feeling of wellbeing

29

How does cocaine work?

Inhibits reuptake of dopamine
Dopamine floods the medial forebrain

30

How do amphetamines work?

Stimulate dopamine release