8. Consciousness, Unconsciousness, Sleep, EEG Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8. Consciousness, Unconsciousness, Sleep, EEG Deck (39)
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1

What is consciousness?

Self-awareness, perception, ability to respond to stimuli and act with judgement

2

What is sleep?

A state of altered consciousness
Person can be aroused by stimuli

3

Which cycle controls when we sleep?

Circadian rhythm

4

What is a coma?

Inability to sense or respond to stimuli
Loss of sleep/wake cycle

5

What is the scale used to measure a coma?

Glasgow scale

6

What categories are used in the Glasgow scale?

Eye opening
Verbal response
Motor response

7

What are the ranges for severe to mild coma on the glasgow scale?

<8 severe
9-12 moderate
>13 mild

8

What are causes of comas?

Intoxication
Acute neurological injury
Metabolic disorders
CNS infection
Stroke
Hypoxia

9

How long can a coma last before the patient enters a vegetative state or dies?

5 weeks

10

What is a vegetative state?

Unconsciousness in patients with severe brain injury
Have a certain degree of wakefulness (may be able to track objects with eyes)
Lack awareness and cognitive function

11

What is brain death?

Irreversible coma
Loss of pain response and cranial nerve reflexes (fixed pupils, no blink reflex)
Loss of spontaneous respiration

12

How long does an infradian rhythm last?

> 1 day

13

How long does an ultradian rhythm last?

<1 day, > 1 hour

14

Where is melatonin secreted from?

Pineal gland

15

What stimulates the pineal gland?

SCN

16

What are the functions of melatonin?

Induce sleep at night time
Help adjust to seasons and other time zones

17

What sort of brain waves are characteristic of NREM sleep?

Slow

18

What happens to HR, BP and temperature during NREM sleep?

Decrease: autonomic instability

19

How long are REM cycles?

90 mins

20

How many times do REM cycles occur during the night?

5-6

21

What are the three parts of a polysomnography?

Electroencephalogram
Electroculograph
Electromyogram

22

What is tracked by an EEG?

Changes in frequency, amplitude and synchronisation of brain waves

23

What is tracked by an EOG?

Eye movements

24

What is tracked by an EMG?

Muscle tension in face and leg

25

What are the uses of an EEG?

Sleep
Seizures
Altered consciousness

26

What rhythm is present when awake with eyes open?

β rhythm

27

What rhythm is present when awake with eyes closed?

α rhythm

28

What are the EEG, EOG and EMG results during NREM 1?

Theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency)
Slow, rolling eye movements
Slow muscle activity

29

What are the EEG, EOG and EMG results during NREM 2?

Slow waves but occasionally rapid spindles/k complexes
Eye movements stop
Spontaneous muscle tone and relaxation

30

What are the EEG findings during NREM 3?

Slow delta waves (also stage 4)
Interrupted by smaller, faster waves