Flashcards in 8. Consciousness, Unconsciousness, Sleep, EEG Deck (39)
What is consciousness?
Self-awareness, perception, ability to respond to stimuli and act with judgement
What is sleep?
A state of altered consciousness
Person can be aroused by stimuli
Which cycle controls when we sleep?
What is a coma?
Inability to sense or respond to stimuli
Loss of sleep/wake cycle
What is the scale used to measure a coma?
What categories are used in the Glasgow scale?
What are the ranges for severe to mild coma on the glasgow scale?
What are causes of comas?
Acute neurological injury
How long can a coma last before the patient enters a vegetative state or dies?
What is a vegetative state?
Unconsciousness in patients with severe brain injury
Have a certain degree of wakefulness (may be able to track objects with eyes)
Lack awareness and cognitive function
What is brain death?
Loss of pain response and cranial nerve reflexes (fixed pupils, no blink reflex)
Loss of spontaneous respiration
How long does an infradian rhythm last?
> 1 day
How long does an ultradian rhythm last?
<1 day, > 1 hour
Where is melatonin secreted from?
What stimulates the pineal gland?
What are the functions of melatonin?
Induce sleep at night time
Help adjust to seasons and other time zones
What sort of brain waves are characteristic of NREM sleep?
What happens to HR, BP and temperature during NREM sleep?
Decrease: autonomic instability
How long are REM cycles?
How many times do REM cycles occur during the night?
What are the three parts of a polysomnography?
What is tracked by an EEG?
Changes in frequency, amplitude and synchronisation of brain waves
What is tracked by an EOG?
What is tracked by an EMG?
Muscle tension in face and leg
What are the uses of an EEG?
What rhythm is present when awake with eyes open?
What rhythm is present when awake with eyes closed?
What are the EEG, EOG and EMG results during NREM 1?
Theta waves (high amplitude, low frequency)
Slow, rolling eye movements
Slow muscle activity
What are the EEG, EOG and EMG results during NREM 2?
Slow waves but occasionally rapid spindles/k complexes
Eye movements stop
Spontaneous muscle tone and relaxation