9. Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, Extrapyramidal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9. Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, Extrapyramidal System Deck (38)
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1

What do the extrapyramidal systems control?

Voluntary movement

2

What does the corticobulbar pathway control?

Muscles in the head and neck

3

Give the corticobulbar pathway

1. Arise from the lateral aspect of the primary motor cortex
2. Fibres converge and pass through genu of the internal capsule
3. Go through pyramids of the medulla
4. Synapse of motor nuclei of cranial nerves
5. Lower motor neurons to muscles of head and neck

4

Which cranial nerves are not innervated bilaterally?

VII below the eyes
XII

5

Give the corticospinal pathway

1. Cortex
2. Posterior limb of internal capsule
3. 85% decussate in the medulla and enter the lateral corticospinal tract
Terminate in the ventral horn
4. 15% remain ipsilateral in the anterior corticospinal tract
Decussate and terminate in the ventral horn

6

What are the symptoms of an upper motor neuron lesion?

Ipsilateral: weakness, hypertonicity, hyperreflexia, clonus, babinski's sign

7

What happens in an upper motor neuron lesion to the facial nerve?

Face droops below eye on the contralateral side

8

What are the symptoms of a lower motor nerve lesion?

Ipsilateral: paralysis, muscle wasting, fasciculations, hypotonicity, hyporeflexia

9

What happens in a lower motor neuron lesion to the facial nerve?

Facial muscles are damaged above and below eyes

10

Where is the cerebellum situated in the skull?

Posterior cranial fossa

11

What membrane surrounds the cerebellum?

Tentorium cerebelli

12

What does the superior cerebellar peduncle connect the cerebellum to?

Midbrain

13

What does the middle cerebellar peduncle connect the cerebellum to?

Pons

14

What does the inferior cerebellar peduncle connect the cerebellum to?

Medulla

15

What is the name of the midline of the cerebellum?

Vermis

16

What are the lobes of the cerebellum?

Anterior
Posterior
Flocculonodular

17

What are the functional divisions of the cerebellum?

Vestibulocerebellum
Spinocerebellum
Cerebrocerebellum

18

What does the vestibulocerebellum control?

Balance

19

What is the main nucleus in the vestibulocerebellum?

Fastigial

20

What problems are associated with the vestibulocerebellum?

Problems with walking, posture and eye movements

21

What does the spinocerebellum control?

Muscle tone and posture

22

What are the main nuclei in the spinocerebellum?

Globose and emboliform

23

What does the cerebrocerebellum control?

Muscle coordination, planning movement

24

What is the main nucleus in the cerebrocerebellum?

Dentate

25

What problems are associated with the cerebrocerebellum?

Intention tremor
Nystagmus
Dysdiadokinesis

26

Give the cerebrocerebellar pathway?

1. From pre and post central gyrus
Frontopontine fibres
Pontine nuclei
Pontocerebellar fibres
Opposite cerebellar hemisphere and nuclei
2. Superior cerebellar peduncles to opposite medulla
Ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus
Precentral gyrus

27

What is special about the cerebrocerebellar pathway?

Double decussation causes ipsilateral effects

28

What pathway is associated with the vestibulocerebellum?

Reticular/vestibular system

29

What pathway is associated with the spinocerebellum?

Red nucleus

30

What is contained in the corpus striatum?

Caudate
Putamen
Globus pallidus