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Flashcards in 7. Pain Deck (45)
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1

What is the name given to pain receptors?

Nociceptors

2

What kind of stimuli do nociceptors react to?

Mechanical
Chemical
Thermal

3

What sources do chemical stimuli come from?

Damaged cells
Platelets
Immune cells

4

What chemicals are released from damaged cells?

Bradykinins
ATP
Prostaglandins
H+

5

What chemical is released from platelets?

Serotonin

6

What chemicals are released from immune cells?

Cytokines
Chemokines

7

Which receptors detect cold?

TRP A1
TRP M8

8

What receptor detects heat?

TRPV1

9

What receptor detects protons?

ASIC

10

What receptor detects bradykinin?

B1
B2

11

Which receptors detects mechanical stimuli?

DRASIC
mDEG

12

What kind of fibres are type 1 pain fibres?

A-delta
Small, myelinated, fast conduction

13

What sort of pain is transmitted through A-delta fibres?

Sharp, localised and immediate

14

Where does information from A-delta fibres go?

Thalamus and cortex

15

What NT is used in A-delta fibres?

Glutamate

16

What kind of fibres are type 2 pain fibres?

C
Small, unmyelinated, slow conduction

17

What sort of pain is transmitted through C fibres?

Dull, aching pain

18

Where does information from C fibres go?

Limbic system
Hypothalamus

19

What NT is used in C fibres?

Substance P

20

Which sensory pathway does pain travel in?

Spinothalamic

21

What tract in the spinal cord do A-delta and C fibres ascend in?

Tract of Lissauer

22

Where do A-delta fibres synapse in the dorsal horn?

Layers I and V

23

Where do C fibres synapse in the dorsal horn?

Layer II (Substantia gelatinosa)

24

When do the pain fibres decussate?

Immediately after synapsing with the second order neuron

25

Which receptors does glutamate act on?

NMDA
AMPA

26

Which receptor does Substance P act on?

NK1

27

What are endogenous opioids?

Chemicals released to help modulate pain

28

What are the 3 types of opioid receptors?

μ (heat)
δ (Mechanical)
κ (Visceral)

29

What endogenous opioids are released in response to heat?

β-Endorphin
Leu-Enkephalin

30

What endogenous opioids are released in response to mechanical stimuli?

Leu-Enkephalin
Met-Enkephalin