Flashcards in 13. Neurobiology of Emotion and Motivation Deck (27)
What is the fast pathway of cognition and emotion?
Stimulus > thalamus > amygdala
What effect does the fast pathway of cognition have?
Autonomic arousal (increase HR and alertness)
What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
Modulates autonomic NS, endocrine and limbic systems
What are the behavioural functions of the hypothalamus?
Connections to limbic system and prefrontal cortex can affect emotion
Where in the hypothalamus in the hunger centre?
Where in the hypothalamus in the satiety centre?
What is the function of the hippocampus?
Recognition of novelty
What is the function of the amygdaloid complex?
Why can emotion affect perception and memory?
Amygdala is connected to the visual cortex and hippocampus, and therefore facilitates perceptual and memory functions
What is Kluver-Bucy Syndrome?
Bilateral destruction of anterior temporal lobes, including amygdaloid complex
What are the symptoms of Kluver-Bucy Syndrome?
2. Absence of fear response
What are the symptoms of damage to the amygdala?
Decrease in conditioned fear response
Loss of ability to detect and recognise anger in facial and vocal expressions
What is the symptom of damage to the hippocampus?
Can't convert recent memories to long term storage
What disease is characterised by neuronal death in the hippocampus?
What are the physical signs of Schizophrenia in the brain?
Decreased volume amygdala and hippocampus
What is the different about the circuitry of someone with anxiety?
1. Increased amygdala activation in response to angry and fearful faces (positive correlation to severity of anxiety)
2. Lower threshold to amygdala activation by threats
3. Decreased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation
(prefrontal cortex doesn't decrease amygdala activation efficiently)
What is the different about the circuitry of someone with Major Depressive Disorder?
1. Smaller amygdala
2. Multiple structures in the prefrontal cortex are reduced in size
3. Increased amygdala activation in response to fearful and sad faces
4. Increased activation in ventral prefrontal cortex in response to a range of tasks
What is motivation?
State that produces a tendency toward some kind of action
What pyramid is used to show what humans are motivated towards?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
What determines appetite?
Balance between insulin and leptin
What nucleus in the hypothalamus controls the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis?
What system is important in addiction?
Mesolimbic Dopamine System
What are the functions of dopamine?
Pleasure and euphoria
What is the cause of cravings and withdrawal symptoms?
Abstinence from an addictive substance after repeated administration causes a decrease in dopamine levels
What is operant conditioning?
Association between behaviour and a consequence
What is classical conditioning also known as?