13. Neurobiology of Emotion and Motivation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13. Neurobiology of Emotion and Motivation Deck (27)
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1

What is the fast pathway of cognition and emotion?

Stimulus > thalamus > amygdala

2

What effect does the fast pathway of cognition have?

Autonomic arousal (increase HR and alertness)
Hormonal response

3

What are the functions of the hypothalamus?

Modulates autonomic NS, endocrine and limbic systems
Homeostasis
Emotional behaviour

4

What are the behavioural functions of the hypothalamus?

Hunger centre
Satiety centre
Connections to limbic system and prefrontal cortex can affect emotion
Circadian rhythm

5

Where in the hypothalamus in the hunger centre?

Lateral

6

Where in the hypothalamus in the satiety centre?

Ventromedial

7

What is the function of the hippocampus?

Learning
Memory
Recognition of novelty

8

What is the function of the amygdaloid complex?

Endocrine activity
Sexuality
Reproduction
Autonomic response
Emotion

9

Why can emotion affect perception and memory?

Amygdala is connected to the visual cortex and hippocampus, and therefore facilitates perceptual and memory functions

10

What is Kluver-Bucy Syndrome?

Bilateral destruction of anterior temporal lobes, including amygdaloid complex

11

What are the symptoms of Kluver-Bucy Syndrome?

1. Docility
2. Absence of fear response
3. Hyperorality
4. Hypersexuality

12

What are the symptoms of damage to the amygdala?

Decrease in conditioned fear response
Loss of ability to detect and recognise anger in facial and vocal expressions

13

What is the symptom of damage to the hippocampus?

Can't convert recent memories to long term storage

14

What disease is characterised by neuronal death in the hippocampus?

Alzheimer's

15

What are the physical signs of Schizophrenia in the brain?

Decreased volume amygdala and hippocampus

16

What is the different about the circuitry of someone with anxiety?

1. Increased amygdala activation in response to angry and fearful faces (positive correlation to severity of anxiety)
2. Lower threshold to amygdala activation by threats
3. Decreased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation
(prefrontal cortex doesn't decrease amygdala activation efficiently)

17

What is the different about the circuitry of someone with Major Depressive Disorder?

1. Smaller amygdala
2. Multiple structures in the prefrontal cortex are reduced in size
3. Increased amygdala activation in response to fearful and sad faces
4. Increased activation in ventral prefrontal cortex in response to a range of tasks

18

What is motivation?

State that produces a tendency toward some kind of action

19

What pyramid is used to show what humans are motivated towards?

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

20

What determines appetite?

Balance between insulin and leptin

21

What nucleus in the hypothalamus controls the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis?

Paraventricular

22

What system is important in addiction?

Mesolimbic Dopamine System

23

What are the functions of dopamine?

Reward pathways
Pleasure and euphoria
Motor function
Compulsion
Preservation
Decision making

24

What is the cause of cravings and withdrawal symptoms?

Abstinence from an addictive substance after repeated administration causes a decrease in dopamine levels

25

What is operant conditioning?

Association between behaviour and a consequence

26

What is classical conditioning also known as?

Pavlovian conditioning

27

What is classical conditioning?

Association between 2 stimuli