Chapter 3 Health Risk Behavior Flashcards

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1
Q

What is a A: behavioral pathogen, and B: a behavioral immunogen?

A

A: behavior found to worsen health and lead to disease and B: behavior thought to improve health and prevent disease.

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2
Q

health risk

A

factor that raises the probability of disease

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3
Q

name the ALAMEDA 7 behavioral immunogens

A

sleeping 7-8 hours a night, not smoking, consuming no more than 2 drinks a day, regular exercise, 3 regular meals without snacks between, eating breakfast, no more than 10% overweight

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4
Q

which two factors of the ALAMEDA 7 are not actually related to mortality?

A

eating breakfast and no snacking

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5
Q

top ten risk factors for death (account for more than 1/3rd of deaths worldwide)

A
  1. High blood pressure
  2. Tobacco consumption
  3. High blood glucose
  4. Physical inactivity
  5. Overweight and obesity
  6. High cholesterol
  7. Unsafe sex
  8. Alcohol consumption
  9. Childhood underweight
  10. Indoor smoke from solid fuels
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6
Q

Morbidity

A

costs associated with illness such as disability, injury

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7
Q

how many deaths are accounted to tobacco use worldwide (%)

A

9%

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8
Q

age-specific mortality

A

number of deaths per 100.000 per year according to certain age groups

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9
Q

how many units of alcohol are recommended for men and women according to the WHO

A

men: 3
women: 2
generally noone should have more than 4 units per night

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10
Q

tobacco contains tars and carbon monoxide which are suggested to cause (answer in %)
____ of coronary heart diseases,
____ of lung cancer
____ of chronic obstructive airway disease
answer choices: 80, 70, 30

A

30 - CHD
70 - LC
80 - COAD

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11
Q

what is the impact of smoking tobacco on the body?

A

CO reduces circulation of oxygen in the blood
nicotine increases blood pressure and heart rate
narrowing of arteries and increased likelihood in thrombosis

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12
Q

what is carcinogenesis

A

The process by which normal cells become cancer cells

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13
Q

name three main factors that distinguish those that engage in problem-drinking from those that don’t

A

social learning experience
genetics and family history
psychopathology

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14
Q

Developing a tolerance to a substance and subsequently having to increase the dosis of it to get the known effects or alternatively avoiding withdrawal - What is this process

A

addiction

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15
Q

HIV prevalence

A

36.9 million people

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16
Q

reasons for decrease in prevalence of HIV

A
  • antiretroviral therapies
  • health behaviors (no needle sharing, condom use)
17
Q

is alcohol a stimulant or a depressant (in its function on the CNS)

A

a depressant

18
Q

effects of alcohol

A

low dose - behavioral inhibition
high dose - increased likelihood of accidents
very high dose - affects respiratory rate
(can lead to coma and death)

19
Q

what can interventions be aimed at when tackling alcohol abuse

A

behavior interventions
self-esteem improvements

20
Q

moderate alcohol consumption is healthy/unhealthy

A

healthy

21
Q

why might moderate consumption of red wine actually reduce the likelhood of cardiovascular disease?

A

because of its polyphenolic compounds like flavanol - has antioxidative/ anti-inflammatory effects (prevent carcinogenesis)

22
Q

Why can the mode of ingestion of illicit drugs sometimes be an additional risk factor for chronic disease?

A

Injection via syringe can lead to HIV infection

23
Q

what are endorphins?

A

natural-occurring opiate-like chemicals used by the brain

24
Q

the heavy consumption of what drug can lead to liver cyrrhosis?

A

alcohol

25
Q

people used to be punished for their dependency. Why is that?

A

moral ethos about drinking
who drinks is responsible for it and does so on purpose
so you may judge them for it fully

26
Q

greater affliction of which gender for HIV

A

homosexual population: men
heterosexual population: women

27
Q

how do you prevent HPV

A

condom not sufficient
virus lives on the whole genital area

28
Q

use of condoms - who does it? name some statistics

A

men more commonly use condoms than women
men with many sexual partners that are not new use them the least out of any demographic
older people use them less than younger people
non-white ethnicity + non-christian religion correlated with greater use
condom use declines after around 6 months in new relationship

29
Q

how many cancer deaths are attributable (at least in part) to poor diet?

A

35%

30
Q

what is cholesterol used for by the body

A

production of bile
is synthesized to produce steroid hormones

31
Q

cholesterol

A

find it in food - contains lipo-proteins
low density lipoproteins can cause plaque in arteries (referred to as bad cholesterol)
high density LP is good cholesterol because it accelerates the processing and removal of the bad cholesterol from the arteries by the liver

32
Q

difference between atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis

A

atherosclerosis - plaques are laid down on artery walls if the circulating cholesterol is too high
arteriosclerosis - artery walls harden and get less elastic

33
Q

what phenomena is coronary artery disease made up from

A

atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis
coronary artery disease makes up primary cause for coronary heart disease

34
Q

do economic factors have an influence on diet

A

yes

35
Q

systolic blood pressure

A

maximum pressure of blood on the arteries occuring at the end of the left ventricle output

36
Q

diastolic blood pressure

A

minimum pressure of the blood on the artery walls between heart beats

37
Q

calculate the BMI for this person
189 cm tall
male
88 kg

A

24,63

38
Q

obesity as a risk factor

A

hypertension, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, lower back pain, respiratory problems, some forms of cancer

39
Q

obesity facts

A

three-fold increase in last 3 decades in
china, america, canada, australia
biggest child disorder
low social class related to obesity in females not males