Chapter 5 Explaining Health Behavior Flashcards Preview

Health and Medical Psychology > Chapter 5 Explaining Health Behavior > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 5 Explaining Health Behavior Deck (47)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Distal influences on health behavior

A

culture
environment
age
gender
SES
ethincity
personality
(some distal factors operate on behavior indirectly by influencing proximal factors)

2
Q

proximal influences on health behavior

A

specific beliefs and attitudes towards health risks and behaviors

3
Q

how does age influence the puclic health secotr

A

predominantly attention goes towards the behaviors acquired at young age

4
Q

name the dimensions of the Eysenck 3-factor model and explain what it describes

A

explains personality

extroversion-introversion
neuroticism-emotional stability
psychoticism-self control

5
Q

McCrae and COstas 5 factor model
what are these factors also referred to as?

A

neuroticism
extroversion
openness to experience
agreeableness
conscientiousness

the big five

6
Q

high extroversion, openness to experience and neuroticism increase ________

A

risk-taking behavior

7
Q

highly neurotic individuals sometimes display neophobia. what is that

A

a persistent and chronic fear of anything new

8
Q

personality aspects that influence health behavior

A

locus of control
–> if outside, one’s own responsibility for the own health is seen as less important
self-efficacy
perceived control of behavior

9
Q

self-determination theory
name core concepts and idea

A

relatedness, autonomy, and competence are basic needs that influence how much behavior is self-motivated

10
Q

difference between injunctive and descriptive norms

A

injunctive - how others want you to behave
descriptive - how we expect others behave

11
Q

social cognition theory

A

model of social knwoledge and hbehavior that highlights the effect of cogntive factors on behavior

12
Q

health behavior serves coping functions

A

problem solving
avoidance
time out
prevention

13
Q

what are SMART goals

A

specific
measurable
attainable
realistic
timely

14
Q

according to existential theory what does the individual need to attain mental health/ happiness

A

meaning in their life

15
Q

define attitude

A

common-sense representation that people hold towards objects, people, events

16
Q

what are attitudes made of

A

cognitive, behavioral and emotional components

17
Q

ambivalence

A

person’s motivation to change is undermined by conflicting attitudes

18
Q

what makes measuring attitudes so diffciult

A

social desirability bias

19
Q

measurment of implicit attitudes

A

less subject to bias but also harder to change

20
Q

measurment of implicit attitudes

A

less subject to bias but also harder to change

21
Q

unrealistic optimisim

A

thinking negative outcomes only affect others

22
Q

factors associated with unrealistic optimism

A

lack of personal experience
belief that actions can change the problem
belief that problem is unlikely to emerge in the future if it hasn’t appeared already
belief that problem is rare

23
Q

socio-cognitive theory

A

by Bandura
behavior is determined by 3 types of expectancies
- situation-outcome expectancies
-outcome expectancies
-self-efficacy beliefs
also considers barriers and facilitators to behavior change such as social support and environmental factors

24
Q

health belief model

A

lieklihood that individual engages in health behavior depends on demographic factors

4 beliefs that may arise following a particular external or internal cue to action
- perception of threat
- behavioral evaluation
- cues to action
- health motivation

perceived benefits from behavior outweigh any barriers to that behavior
preventative behavior follows from perception of susceptibility

25
Q

limitation of the Health belief model

A

better at prediciting initiation of health-preventative behavior than stopping risk-behavior
no interrelationships between the factors
model tested better against intention than actual behavior
limited account of social influences
fails to consider self efficacy
insufficient attention to mood
static model that suggests that beliefs occur simulatenously

26
Q

theory of planned behavior

A

behavior is determined by the individual’s perception about the social context and their outcome expectations
individuals act in goal directed manner
outcomes are weighed

27
Q

how is behavior determined according to theory of reasoned planning

A

intention is formed that is influenced by attitude, perceptions towards social norm, pressures regarding the behavior

28
Q

name an example how a negative attitude can be overcome in theory of planned behavior

A

if the individual has a negative attitude towards behavior change like towards dieting but there is a perceived social norm (subjective norm) to diet in their friend circle and they have enough motivation to comply, their negative attitude might be overcome and behavior changed.

29
Q

what is the third factor besides subjective social norm and attitude in ToPP

A

perceived behavioral control
- influenced by past successes or losses
-

30
Q

illness representation

A

beliefs about particulalr illness and state of health

31
Q

what are the 5 domains of leventhal and what concept can they be assigned to

A

identity, timeline, cause, consequences, control/cure

illness representation

32
Q

primary reason for smoking behavior according to theory of PP

A

low perceived behavioral control

33
Q

how was the theory of PP extended

A

habits
anticipatory regret
past behavior
moral norms
self-identity
social support
planning

34
Q

implementation intentions

A

individuals need to shift from planning to exercisieng their plans

creates a mental link between situation and exercising the plan

35
Q

_______ goals lead to higher chance of goal attainment than ________

A

proximal; distal

36
Q

what is a stage model and what concept is it used for, to explain, in health psychology

A

stage theory requirements (weinstein)
- ordering of stages
- classification system to define stages
- similar barriers to change facing people in same stages
- different barriers to change facing people in different stages

37
Q

transtheoretical model

A

describes the process of eliciting and maintaining intentional behavior change
(assumptions: people move through stages; processes in each stage are different)

38
Q

name the stages of motivational readiness

A

pre-contemplation
contemplation
preparation
action
maintenance
termination
relapse

39
Q

states of change model - name some of its properties

A

spiral model (moving not in right order through stages but changes different)

40
Q

limitations of the TTM

A

some changes in behavior resulted from change to action rather than precede it
past behavior is a powerful key
validity of 5 independent stages is low
not sufficiently covers the social part

41
Q

we can explain deliberate actions to change health risks with the precaution adaptation process model - how many stages does it have?

A

7 stages

42
Q

explain three of the stages of the PAPM

A

stage1 - no knowledge of health threat
stage2 - awareness but not convinced of personal threat
stage3 - engagement starts (consideration stage)
stage4 - perceived threat + susceptibility are high but some decide not to act
stage5 - some decide to act (motivation changes to volition)
stage6 -action stage, health behavior has been initiated
stage7 - not always necessary, behavior maintenance

43
Q

limitation of PAPM

A

lack of longitudinal testing

44
Q

health action process approach (HAPA)

A

both static and staged components
there is at least a motivational and volitional phase

45
Q

how does the HAPA fill the intention-behavior gap?

A

highlights the importance fo post-motivational self-efficacy and action plannign

46
Q

divide the HAPA in motivation and volition phase

A

motivation phase:
intention is formed
self-efficacy and outcome expectancies are important
threat severity and personal susceptibility only distal factors
volition phase:
conscious decision that involves planning is made to turn intention into action
initiative self-efficacy (different than motivational phase) is needed to tackle spontaneously arising circumstances
maintaining of action - coping S.-E. is needed

47
Q

limitations of the HAPA

A

insufficient modeling of behavior of young people
insufficient attention given to non-conscious processes