13 - Atheroma, Thrombosis and Embolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 13 - Atheroma, Thrombosis and Embolism Deck (11):
1

Commonly affected vessels for atherosclerosis

Bifurcations
Ab aorta
Coronary arteries
Popliteal arteries
Carotid vessels
Circle of willis

2

Atherosclerosis - pathophysiology

1. endothelial injury
2. hyperlipidaemia accumulation
3. monocytes migrate and ingest lipid forming foam cells (fatty streak)
4. foam cells secrete chemokines
5. smooth cell proliferate and secrete connective tissue
6. atherosclerotic plaque formed

3

Causes of endothelial injury

haemodynamic injury
chemicals
immune complex deposition
irradiation

4

what is it that attracts monocytes to the intima?

the lipids and endothelial injury cause release of VCAM1

5

Which wall of artery is this happening in?

Intima

6

Platelets what are they?

Fragments of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow that circulate in blood

7

What do platelets bind to?

Collagen exposed by endothelial damage and become activated

8

What do platelets secrete?

Alpha granules - fibrinogen, fibronectin, PDGF

Dense granules - chemotactic chemicals

9

Virchow's triad

To do with platelet adhesion and thrombus formation...

Changes in intimal surface of vessel
Pattern of blood flow
Blood constituents

10

Venous thrombosis in relation to virchow's triad

Valve problems
immobile blood flow
More inflammatory mediators (infection, malignancy)
FV leiden
Oestrogen

11

Gas emboli

Air - >100ml for effects - obstetric procedures/chest wall injury

Nitrogen - the bends, divers, tunnel workers, nitrogen bubbles enter bones, joints and lungs