Flashcards in 20 - Carcinogenesis Deck (22):
Aflatoxin affects the
Alcohol affects the
pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver
Asbestos affects the
X rays affect
Bone marrow - leukaemia
tobacco smoke affects
mouth, lung, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, bladder etc.
HBV affects the
liver (hepatitis B virus)
HPV affects the
cervix (human papilloma virus)
chemically modifies DNA
induce proliferation and DNA replication
both a promoter and an initiator e.g. UV light
CpG methylation is only effective at turning gene expression off when
the CpG islands occurs within the promoter sequence of the gene
TSG stands for
tumour suppressor gene
direct acting metabolic activation
interact directly with DNA e.g. oxygen radicals, nitrosomines, UV light, ionising radiation
require enzymatic activation before they react with DNA e.g. aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
what is benzopyrene?
generated through combustion of most organic material e.g. meat, tobacco, fuel requires metabolic activation.
involved with the TP53 gene.
defects in the ATM gene lead to what
ATM gene responsible for recombinational repair
gives rise to ataxia telangiectasis (A-T). AR disorder. 100-fold increase in cancer.
Lynch syndrome aka
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)
Defence against carcinogenesis
Exposure to myriad carcinogenic agents
DNA repair enzymes
Apoptotic response to unrepaired genetic damage
Immune response to infection and abnormal cells
An e.g. of PAH
(Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
what is alcohol converted to to make it do DNA damage?
also more oestrogen and testosterone, increases carcinogenic uptake in upper GI, reduce levels of folate and kills surface epithelium.