What is the primary function of adrenergic alpha-1 receptors on smooth muscle?
Contraction of smooth muscle – especially vascular and glandular.
What is the primary function of adrenergic beta-2 receptors on smooth muscle?
Relaxation of smooth muscle – vasodilation.
What is the primary function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on smooth muscle?
Contraction of smooth muscle.
What type of medication is typically used to treat urinary incontinence and why?
Muscarinic receptor antagonists.
Muscarinic receptors are in charge of contraction of the detrusor muscles and relaxation of the urinary sphincter. An antagonist will produce the opposite effect.
What sort of medication would relax the detrusor muscles of the bladder?
Muscarinic antagonists / beta-2 agonists
What are the primary sympathetic receptors for the heart?
Beta-1 adrenergic receptors.
What receptor controls the smooth muscle on blood vessels?
How do muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle?
Alpha-1 receptors constrict blood vessels.
There is no parasympathetic innervation to smooth muscles of the blood vessels, but muscarinic agonists nonetheless caused nitric oxide to be released by the endothelial cells, which causes vasodilatation.
What receptor causes miosis?
What receptor causes mydriasis?
Which receptor is in charge of relaxation of the detrusor muscle?
Beta-2 adrenergic receptors
What receptor is in charge of relaxation of the bladder's sphincter?
Which receptors increase potassium and water secretion in the salivary glands?
Both alpha-1 (sympathetic) and M3 (parasympathetic) receptors.
The M3 receptors are more effective.
What is the antidote for nerve gas and why?
Many of the life-threatening symptoms of nerve gas are due to muscarinic receptor agonism. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist.
What is the basic pathophysiology of myasthenia gravis?
What is the preferred mechanism to treat myasthenia gravis?
Autoimmune disorder damaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle.
What pharmacological effect (other than blocking histamine) can older generation antihistamines cause?
They can act as an anticholinergic, and block muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.