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Flashcards in 5. Posterior Abdominal Wall Deck (36)
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1

What are the motor and sensory functions of the iliohypogastric nerve?

Motor: internal oblique and transversus abdominis.

Sensory: posterior lateral gluteal skin, and skin in the pubic region.

2

What are the motor and sensory functions of the ilioinguinal nerve?

Motor: internal oblique and transversus abdominis.

Sensory: skin of the upper medial thigh, and either the skin over the root of the penis and anterior scrotum – or the mons pubis and labium majus.

3

Why are accessory renal arteries clinically relevant?

They are "end arteries," and if they are ligated, they will cut off blood supply to their portion of the kidney.

4

At what vertebral levels are the following structures located:

aortic hiatus, caval opening, esophageal hiatus.

Caval opening: T8

Esophageal hiatus: T10

Aortic hiatus: T12

5

What would be the path of lymph draining from the descending colon?

Descending colon -> inferior mesenteric lymph nodes -> lumbar lymph nodes -> cisterna chyli -> thoracic duct -> left subclavian vein / internal jugular vein.

(Structures of the abdomen first drain into the lymph nodes of their embryological origin)

6

At what vertebral level is the hilum of the kidney approximately located?

L1

7

What artery do the middle suprarenal arteries branch off of?

The aorta directly.

8

What is the name for the compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve as it passes under the inguinal ligament?

Meralgia paresthetica.

9

What artery do the inferior suprarenal arteries come off of?

The renal arteries.

10

What muscles make up the muscular floor of the abdomen?

Psoas major.

Iliacus.

Quadratus lumborum.

Diaphragm.

11

What is the sensory function of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh (lateral femoral cutaneous nerve)?

Sensory: skin on the anterior and lateral thigh, down to the knee.

12

What are the motor and sensory functions of the femoral nerve?

Motor: muscles of the anterior compartment of the thigh, as well as the iliacus and pectineus. (Hip flexors and quads).

Sensory: skin on anterior thigh and medial leg (from the saphenous branch).

13

Which crus of the diaphragm encircles esophageal hiatus?

The right crus of the diaphragm.

14

What are the three natural constriction points of the ureter?

At the ureteropelvic junction (at the end of the renal pelvis).

At the pelvic brim where it crosses the external iliac artery.

Where the ureter enters the bladder wall.

15

What all passes through the caval opening?

Inferior vena cava.

Right phrenic nerve.

16

Where's the cisterna chyli found?

(At what vertebral level?)

At the level of L1 – behind the diaphragm.

17

What specific population might be a higher risk for a psoas abscess?

Those with a risk of tuberculosis.

18

What are the motor and sensory functions of the obturator nerve?

Motor: muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh – obturator externus, pectineus, etc.

Sensory: skin on the medial aspect of the thigh.

19

From which vertebral segments do the preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating the suprarenal gland originate?

T6-L2

20

What are the signs and symptoms of a psoas abscess?

Psoas sign.

Back or flank pain.

Fever and infectious signs.

Possible inguinal mass.

21

What nerves run posterior to the kidneys?

Subcostal nerve.

The roots of L1: iliohypogastric  and ilioinguinal.

22

What passes through the aortic hiatus?

Aorta.

Sometimes the azygos and the hemi-azygos veins.

Sometimes the thoracic duct as well.

23

What are the motor and sensory functions of the genitofemoral nerve?

Motor: cremaster muscle.

Sensory: skin of anterior scrotum or mons pubis and labium majus – skin of upper anterior thigh.

(Genital and femoral sensation come from two branches, the genital branch and the femoral branch)

24

Where does the right crus of the diaphragm insert?

Where does the left crus of the diaphragm insert?

Right crus: L3-L4

Left crus: L2-L3

25

What is the "psoas sign."

Pain on contraction of the psoas muscle – either resisted flexion or passive extension of the hip.

26

From superior to inferior, what nerves of the abdomen exit lateral to psoas major?

Subcostal nerve.

Iliohypogastric nerve.

Ilioinguinal nerve.

Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve.

Femoral nerve.

27

Are the sympathetic nerves approaching the suprarenal gland preganglionic or postganglionic?

Preganglionic. They synapse and the postganglionic nerves continue within the suprarenal gland itself.

28

Non-foregut/midgut/hindgut structures on the posterior abdominal wall (such as the kidneys) drain into what lymph nodes?

Directly into the lumbar lymph nodes.

29

What would be the path of the lymph draining from the liver?

Liver -> celiac trunk -> cisterna chyli -> thoracic duct -> left subclavian vein / left internal jugular vein.

30

All of the lymph from the abdomen drains into what common structure?

Cisterna chyli.