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What are the 5 steps of the pathway of saliva flow from acinus to lumen?

(Name the ducts in order.)


Intercalated duct.

Striated duct.

Excretory duct.



Which part of the gallbladder is covered with adventitia, and which part is covered with serosa?

The gallbladder is covered with adventitia where it lies against the liver.

The part of the gallbladder that is exposed is covered with serosa.


What is the function of Kupffer cells?

What is their more specialized function?

Kupffer cells act like macrophages.

Kupfer cells' specialized function is to detect the age of erythrocytes and phagocytose those that need to be phagocytosed


What is the portal lobule defined as?

Why is this interesting?

The portal lobule is defined as a center portal triad, and the triangle formed by imaginary lines between the 3 central veins surrounding it.

This is interesting because all of the hepatocytes within a portal lobule drain to their center portal triad (bile duct). It is the best way to look at the exocrine function of the liver.


What cell would secrete trypsinogen, lipases, and amylolytic enzymes?

Pancreatic acinar cells.


What are the 3 main digestive glands?

The major salivary glands.

The exocrine pancreas.

The liver (and gallbladder).


What sort of secretions come from the sublingual gland?

Both mucus and serous, but predominantly mucus.


Where is the space of Mall located?

There is a small amount of space between the portal triad vessels and the loose connective tissue from the septa of the liver that surrounds them. This is called the periportal space of Mall.


Which is zone of the liver acinus is most sensitive to ischemic events?

Which zone is most sensitive to toxic substances?

Zone 1 is most sensitive to toxic substances.

Zone 3 is most sensitive to ischemic events.


Where does the neurovasculature run within a salivary gland?

Within the septa that divides the gland into lobes and lobules.


Where are the neurovasculature and ducts found within the pancreas?

Within the septa of loose connective tissue.


Do the hepatic sinusoids have a continuous or discontinuous endothelium?

Do the hepatic sinusoids have a continuous or discontinuous basal lamina?


Both the endothelium and the basal lamina of the hepatic sinusoids is discontinuous.

(There are no diaphragms present.)


What structure is the hepatic lobule arranged around?

The central vein.


What cell's primary source of oxygen and nutrients is a mix of both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood?

The hepatocytes.


What is the name for the secretory portion of an exocrine gland?



What are the 3 major salivary glands?

The parotid gland.

The submandibular gland.

The sublingual gland.


What is the term for how the cells of the liver are arranged?

Into "cellular cords."


What is the normal configuration of mucus and serous cells in a mucoserous (mixed) gland?

Clear mucus cells in the middle, surrounded by dark, eosinophilic serous cells.


What everyday activity could change, resulting in an increase or decrease of protease production?

Changing increase or decrease in consumption of protein.

Digestive enzymes increase or decrease in their secretion depending upon macronutrient intake – and therefore need.


Besides emulsification of fats, what is one function of bile?

Assisting with the secretion of bilirubin, cholesterol, iron, and copper.


Identify this organ.

What criteria can you use to identify this organ?

The gallbladder.

Simple columnar epithelium. Large folds with lamina propria. Dense muscularis layer running circularly.


How can we determine the different structures of the portal triad histologically?

The portal vein is typically large with very little smooth muscle, the branch of the hepatic artery has more smooth muscle and is smaller, and the bile duct is very clear because it is lined with simple cuboidal epithelium.


What are the boundaries of a liver acinus?

2 central veins, 2 portal triads, and the diamond shape in between.


What sort of secretions come from the parotid gland?

Serous secretions.


What is the functional unit of a salivary gland called?

A salivon.


What is the site of exchange between blood and liver cells?

The perisinusoidal space (space of Disse).


What runs through the parotid gland that might make surgery to that area more dangerous?

CN VII (facial nerve)


What is a good hallmark for identification of the pancreas?

Large amount of eosinophilic (pink/purple) parenchyma – with lighter staining blobs, which are the islets of Langerhans.


What is the purpose of the exocrine vs. endocrine pancreas?

The exocrine pancreas synthesizes and secretes enzymes that are essential for digestion, whereas the endocrine pancreas is not on the exam.


Where is the space of Disse located?

The perisinusoidal space of Disse is the space between the endothelial lining of the sinusoids and the basal portion of the hepatocytes. It is the small space blood must pass through to reach the hepatocytes from the sinusoids.