Are presynaptic or postsynaptic neurons myelinated?
Presynaptic neurons are myelinated.
Which division of the nervous system, somatic or autonomic, have no ganglia involved in their pathway?
The somatic nervous system.
(Single neuron pathway)
Where does constipation typically present pain?
Left inguinal region.
Which division of the autonomic nervous system inhibits sphincters?
The parasympathetic nervous system.
In what ganglia do the parasympathetic cranial nerves synapse?
Which cranial nerves carry parasympathetic nerve fibers?
Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X.
Where do the sympathetic nerve fibers destined from the lower limb originate?
What are the four main symptoms of Horner syndrome?
Generally speaking, where to the organs of the foregut, midgut, and hindgut produce pain?
Foregut organs produce pain in the epigastric region, midgut organs produce pain in the periumbilical region, hindgut organs produce pain in the suprapubic/hypogastric area.
What are the only parasympathetic nerves that travel with spinal nerves?
The pelvic splanchnics, which run with S2-S4.
Which division of the autonomic nervous system helps you read things up close?
The parasympathetic nervous system.
With what nerve fibers do the postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibers destine for the upper limb run?
C5-T1's anterior rami.
These are also the roots of the brachial plexus.
Where do all sympathetic nerves originally come from?
The intermediolateral cell column of T-1-L2
Which ganglia are the points of synapse for the sympathetic nerve fibers destined for the upper limb?
The middle and inferior cervical ganglia.
Which division of the nervous system, somatic or autonomic, has a two neuron pathway?
The autonomic nervous system.
With what nerves do the postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibers destined for the lower limb run?
L2-S3's anterior rami.
These are also the roots of the lumbosacral plexus.
What is controlled by sympathetic nerve fibers that exit the internal carotid plexus?
Mucus secretions and blood vessels of the oral and nasal passages.
Elevation of the eyelid.
What is controlled by the sympathetic nerve fibers that exit the external carotid plexus?
Mucus secretions from salivary glands.
Sweat glands of the face.
Blood vessels of the face.
Where does appendicitis cause pain in the late stages?
In the right inguinal region.
Which fibers of the autonomic nervous system, preganglionic or postganglionic, are myelinated?
Which spinal nerves make up the sympathetic nervous system?
Where is the thoracic pain line?
The sternal angle – T4-T5.
Which abdominal structures are likely to refer pain to the back and why?
The pancreas, kidney, and aorta.
Because they are retroperitoneal.
Where do sympathetic nerves bypass both the paravertebral ganglia and the prevertebral ganglia to synapse at the target organ?
In the suprarenal gland.
Where do sympathetic nerves running through the internal and external carotid plexuses synapse?
In the superior cervical ganglia.
Which sympathetic splanchnic nerves synapse in prevertebral ganglia?
Abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves.
(Greater, lesser, least splanchnic.)
Where does Crohn's disease typically present pain?
Right inguinal region.
What glands are innervated by parasympathetic fibers from the submandibular ganglion?
Both the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
What areas of the head are innervated by nerves from the pterygopalatine ganglion?
The nasal passage and palate.
What are the given definitions for acute, subacute, and chronic abdominal pain?
Acute – less than three days.
Subacute – three days to three weeks.
Chronic – greater than three weeks.