14 - GI Anatomy and Histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 14 - GI Anatomy and Histology Deck (57)
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1

Motility

Movements of the bowel that influence the transport of luminal contents

2

Ingestion

Act of taking food into the mouth

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Mastication

Chewing food and moistening it with saliva

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Deglutition

Swallowing

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Peristalsis

Oral contraction and anal relaxation, which is propulsive

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Secretion

Exocrine to lumen of gut, endocrine to blood

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Digestion

Breakdown of ingested macromolecules into absorbable smaller subunits

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Absorption

Transport of end products of digestion to blood and/or lymph

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Storage

Temporary holding of ingested contents

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Elimination

Getting rid of indigestible material

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Sphincters of the gut

Upper Esophageal
Lower Esophageal
Pyloric
Iliocecal
Internal Anal
External Anal

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Gut Wall - Luminal

Mucosa:
Epithelium
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa

13

Gut Wall - Middle Layer

Submucosa:
Submucosal plexus

14

Gut Wall - Basal

Muscularis Externa:
Inner circular muscle
Outer longitudinal muscle
Myenteric Plexus

15

Gut Wall - Non-retroperitoneal parts

Adventitia:
Serosa

16

Esophagus - To resist abrasion

Stratified squamous nonkeritanized epithelium

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Stomach - To digest

Simple columnar epithelium

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Basic plan of the gut wall layers (illustrated by esophagus)

Stratified squamous nonkeritanized epithelium (to resist abrasion)
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa (express lymph and fluid from the fluid in the lamina propria) - contains fenestrated blood vessels, the most permeable in the body.
Muscularis externa: Inner circulate & outer longitudinal

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Upper esophagus - Muscularis externa

Mostly striated

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Middle esophagus - Muscularis externa

Mix of striated and smooth

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Lower esophagus - Muscularis externa

Mostly smooth

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Regions of the stomach

Lower esophageal sphincter
Fundus
Body
Antrum
Pylorus
Duodenum

Also split into Orad and Caudad region, about halfway through the body.

23

Fundic region

Rises above the entrance of the esophagus.
Contains air very often.

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Body/corpus

Large region into which food is delivered.

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Antrum

Different
Separated from duodenum by pyloric sphincter.

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Oxyntic region of the stomach

Corpus + Fundus
Makes HCl
Makes pepsinogen
Contains parietal cells
Contains chief cells

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Parietal Cells

Make HCl
Make Intrinsic Factor

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Chief Cells

Make Pepsinogen

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HCl

Acid!

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Intrinsic Factor

The one component made by stomach completely vital for health.

Need it to digest Vitamin B12. Without IF, you get pernicious anemia and demyelination of the spinal cord. B12 deficiency.