17- reproduction in humans Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 17- reproduction in humans Deck (60)
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1

testis

- found outside body
- make sperms
- make testosterone (sex hormone)

2

scrotum

- Sac supporting testis outside the body
- ensures sperm kept in temp lower than that of the body

3

sperm duct

A tube that carries sperms out of testes to urethra.

4

prostate gland

Makes the seminal fluid for sperms to swim in.

5

urethra

Carries both urine & sperms at different times out of the body.

6

ovaries

- make egg cells
- make female sex hormones

7

oviduct

- Carry the egg cell away from the ovaries to the uterus.
- Site of fertilization.

8

uterus

Has thick walls, made of muscle, can stretch when a
woman is pregnant. It is where the embryo develops.

9

cervix

The neck of uterus, supplies mucus to the vagina

10

vagina

part of the birth canal, it is muscular and stretchable

11

fertilization

The fusion of the nuclei of male gamete [sperm] & female gamete [egg cell].

12

adaptive features of egg cell

- cytoplasm with a store of energy (for zygote ltr)
- jelly like coating to stop sperms after fertilization

13

adaptive features of sperm cell

- has a tail for movement
- contains enzymes in acrosome to digest membrane of egg
- large number of mitochondria to supply energy

14

acrosome

head region of sperm cell

15

motility of gametes

sperm- moves (swim)
egg- doesnt move

16

size of gametes

egg larger than sperm

17

number of gametes released

sperm- millions at a time
egg- once a month

18

genetic material of gametes

male- XY
female- XX

19

structure of sperm

enzymes, tail and mitochondria

20

structure of egg

has nutrients in the cytoplasm

21

amniotic sac

contains amniotic fluid which protects the embryo and allows the fetus to movement during growing

22

zygote

the fertilized egg

23

umbilical cord

- its what connects the fetus's blood to and from the placenta for exchange of nutrients and removal of waste products

24

function of placenta

- allow nutrients to diffuse from mother to fetus
- allow wastes to diffuse from fetus to mother
- prevents toxins and pathogens from passing to the fetus

25

components of umbilical cord

fetal blood vessels
arteries - carry waste - fetus to placenta
veins - carry nutrients - placenta to fetus

26

function of umbilical cord

helps placenta in nutrients and gas exchange

27

antenatal care

he care and advice given to expectant mothers along with checks on fetal growth and development

28

advice for expectant mothers (antenatal care)

- balanced diet with folic acid, calcium, iron
- exercise
- avoid tobacco drugs alcohol etc..

29

advantages of breastfeeding

- right amount of nutrients
- antibodies to prevent infection
- develop bond between mom and child
- free

30

disadvantages of breastfeeding

- can be painful
- damages beauty
- mother needs to be present