18- inheritance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 18- inheritance Deck (31)
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1

inheritance

The transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.

2

chromosomes

Thread like structure of DNA, carrying genetic information in forms of genes.

3

gene

Length of DNA and codes for a protein

4

allele

Is a version (form) of gene

5

nucleotides

the building up component of the DNA

6

components of nucleotides

base, sugar and phosphate group

7

shape of DNA

double helix

8

pairs DNA is found in

A----T
C----G

9

how does DNA control cell function

by controlling the production of proteins

10

how many bases are needed to code for one amino acids

3 (triplet code)

11

where does protein synthesis occur

in the ribosome in the cytoplasm- it assembles amino acids to protein molecules

12

job of messenger RNA

carries a copy of gene to the cytoplasm to pass it to the ribosomes.

13

how is the specific order of amino acids determined

by the sequence of bases in the mRNA

14

mitosis

nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells

15

role of mitosis

- growth
- repair
- asexual reproduction

16

stem cells

unspecialized cells that divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells that become specialized for specific functions.

17

meiosis

Nuclear division in which the chromosome number is halved resulting in genetically different cells, and produce genetic variation.

18

genotype

genetic make-up of an organism in terms of the alleles present.

19

phenotypes

observable features of an organism.

20

heterozygous

having two different alleles of a particular gene.

21

homozygous

having two identical alleles of a particular gene.

22

dominant

an allele that is expressed if it is present.

23

recessive

an allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present.

24

ways of showing the phenotype of a particular gene

- pedigree diagrams
- genetic diagrams
- punnett squares

25

codominance

When neither of a pair of alleles is completely dominant or completely recessive, so both of them have an effect on the phenotype. eg; blood type

26

alleles of blood types

IA IB- codominant
IO- recessive to both of the above

27

sex linked characteristic

characteristic in which the gene responsible is located on a sex chromosome making it more common in one sex than in the other.

28

pure breeding

the breed of two organisms identically homozygous for a particular characteristics, producing offspring with exactly the same genotype and phenotype as the parents

29

monohybrid inheritance

the inheritance of characteristics controlled by a single gene

30

how are unknown genotypes identified

test cross