21- Biotechnology Flashcards Preview

Biology > 21- Biotechnology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 21- Biotechnology Deck (34)
Loading flashcards...
1

biotechnology

a technique that uses living organisms to carry out processes to make substances we need, eg: food, enzymes

2

genetic engineering

changing the genetic material of an organism (usually microorganisms ) by removing, changing or inserting genes

3

advantages of using bacteria in biotechnology and genetic engineering

1- tiny, easy to grow in labs
2- no ethical issues over their growth
3- they share the same DNA as humans
4- they can make complex molecules
5- they have additional DNA ( plasmid ), which is easy to transfer between cells
6- reproduce rapidly

4

yeast

- single celled fungus that uses sugar as its food source
- respire anaerobically

5

uses of yeast

make alcohol as biofuel, bread making

6

respiration of yeast

anaerobic respiration (fermination)
glucose ---> ethanol + CO2 + energy

7

biofuel

a fuel made from living organisms rather than a fossil fuel

8

substrate for producing ethanol

plant material (as a source of glucose)- maize

9

how is plants (maize) used in producing ethanol

1. maize is treated with amylase to break down starch to
glucose.
2. yeast is added for anaerobic respiration for glucose to
produce ethanol.
3. ethanol is extracted by distillation.

10

advantages of using ethanol as a fuel

1. it is sustainable resource.
2. helps to reduce CO2 from air as we plant more maize.
3. does not cause pollution

11

disadvantages of using ethanol as a fuel

Maize needs large lands to grow, instead of growing food for people, so it will be expensive for people to buy food.

12

what makes the bread dough rise

Carbon dioxide produced by respiration of yeast

13

function of amylase in dough

break down starch into starch into maltose and glucose

14

what makes the dough stretchy

gluten (protein)

15

what gives the smell of bread

the alcohol (ethanol) evaporating

16

advantages of using biological washing powders

1- quick breakdown of insoluble materials into soluble ones.
2- effective at low temperatures, requiring less energy and money, and can be used on delicate fabrics that would be damaged by high temperatures

17

enzymes present in biological powders and their uses

1-protease - catalyses breakdown of protein, eg; blood
2-lipase - catalyses breakdown of fats,eg; greasy stains

18

why are enzymes in biological powders kept on capsules

to prevent them from reacting with proteins and fats in peoples skin

19

enzymes used to extract juices from fruits

pectinase - breaks down pectin, makes juice clearer

20

pectin

substance in cell wall of a plant which helps plant cells stick together

21

lactose

disacchride sugar found in milk

22

lactase

enzyme that breaks down lactose

23

lactose intolerant

loose the ability to produce lactase

24

symptoms of lactose intolerance

nausea, flatulence and diarrhoea

25

how is lactose free milk made

lactase enzyme is added into it and left for a while to breakdown the lactose

26

products of breakdown of lactose

glucose and galactose- make milk sweet

27

penicillin

an antibiotic that kills bacteria (interferes with the building of the bacterial cell wall )- the first one discovered

28

how is penicillin produced

by growing the fungus Penicillium in industrial fermenter

29

fermenter

containers used to grow (‘culture’) microorganisms like bacteria and fungi in large amounts

30

advantage of using fermenter

conditions can be controlled