7- animal nuitrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7- animal nuitrition Deck (33)
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1

balanced diet

A diet that contains all the nutrients in correct amounts & proportions to make energy.

2

Kwashiorkor disease

-lack of protein
-underweight kids that look fat due to too much carbohydrates

3

marasmus

-lack of protein and carbohydrates
- underweight and skinny

4

ingesion

taking of substances as food & drink into the body through mouth.

5

mechanical digestion

breakdown of food into smaller pieces without chemical changes to food.

6

chemical digestion

breakdown of large insoluble food into small soluble molecules to be absorbed.

7

absorbtion

movement of small molecules of food & ions through the intestinal wall into blood.

8

assimilation

movement of digested food molecules into the cells to be used.

9

egestion

passing out of undigested & unabsorbed food through anus.

10

diarrhea

loss of watery feces, when not enough water is absorbed from the feces.

11

treatment of diarrhea

Oral rehydration therapy by giving drink contains water, salts & sugar.

12

mouth

ingestion, mechanical digestion (teeth), chemical digestion (amyalse in saliva)

13

salivary glands

make saliva to dissolve & chew food. It contains
amylase to digest starch into maltose.

14

esophagus

Muscular tube, takes food down to the stomach by peristalsis.
It has piece of cartilage [epiglottis] to stop food from going to lungs.

15

digest & store food.

-digest & store food.
-contract & relax to mix food with enzymes to make [chyme].
- goblet cells that secrete mucus.
- produce protease enzymes [pepsin] to digest proteins in acidic conditions.
- HCl, to give optimum pH for the enzyme & to kill bacteria in the food by denaturing their enzymes.

16

parts of small intestines

duodenum and iluem

17

molecules digested in small intestines

- starch (amylase)
- protein (alkali protease- tripsin)
- fats (lipase)

18

pancreatic juice

contains enzymes, flows from pancreas to duodenum, neutralize acidic chime from stomach

19

bile juice

no enzymes, made in liver, neutralizes acidic chime for the enzymes, helps emulsification of fat
-yellow pigment from dead RBC

20

emulsification

mechanical digestion of fat by breaking up large fats into smaller ones to increase surface area

21

enzymes in the villi pf the inner walls of the small intestines

-Maltase to break down maltose to glucose.
-Protease to finish breaking down any proteins to amino acids.
-Lipase to finish lipids digestion.

22

how is the absorption through intestinal walls to blood happen

active transport, diffusion

23

adaptive features if small intestines

- long, give time to complete digestion & absorption.
- villi, provide large surface area for faster absorption.
- Villi blood capillaries, simple molecules pass into blood & liver.
- Villi contain lacteals, absorb fats.
- Villi are one cell thick, digested food can pass easily to blood capillaries.

24

large intestine

colon and rectum
absorbs water & salts from the undigested food before it
passes to the rectum & then out through anus.

25

teeth

They are used to bite off, chop, grind food into small pieces [mechanical digestion].

26

tooth structure

enamel, dentine, pulp cavity, cement

27

enamel

hard substance, but can dissolve by acids.

28

dentine

hard, but not as hard as enamel. It contains cytoplasm.

29

pulp cavity

contains nerves & blood vessels. They supply the
cytoplasm with food & oxygen.

30

cement

covers the root.