16- reproduction in plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 16- reproduction in plants Deck (30)
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1

asexual reproduction

A process of production of genetically identical offspring from one parent.

2

advantages of asexual reproduction

- saves energy
- saves time
- needs one parent

3

disadvantages of asexual reproduction

- low genetic variation
- cannot adapt to environment changes

4

methods of asexual reproduction in plants

bulbs, tubers (food storage organs), runners

5

bulb

short stem with leaves, which acts as a food storage organ that can develop into a plant in the following year

6

runners

side shoots that contain tiny plantlets on them (eg; strawberry), which will grow roots and develop into separate plants

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sexual reproduction

A process of fusion of nuclei of two gametes to make a zygote that is genetically different from the parents.

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male gamete in plants

pollen (haploid)

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female gamete in plants

egg cell/ ovule (haploid)

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petal

colored to attract insects

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sepal

protects flower while ots a bud

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anther

makes the pollen

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filament

holds the anther

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stigma

sticky to catch pollen

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style

connects the style to ovary

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ovary

contains ovules

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pistil

female part made of: stigma, style and ovary

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stamen

male part made of: stamen, anther and filament

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pollination

transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma

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pollinators

insects and wind

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self pollination

transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma of the same flower

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features of self pollination

- no require of external agency
- anther and stigma mature at the same time
- can occur even when flower is closed
- produce homozygous offspring
- no variation

23

cross pollination

transfer of pollen grains from anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on a different plant of the same species

24

features of cross pollination

- external agency required (wind, insect)
- anther and stigma mature at different times
- only occurs when flower is open
- produce heterozygous offspring
- variation

25

characteristics of insect pollinated flowers vs wind pollinated flower

- large colored petals/ small dull
- scented and with nectar/ non
- moderate amount of pollen grains/ large
- sticky and spiky/ smooth and light
- anthers inside firmly attached/ outside loose
- stigma inside and sticky/ outside feathery

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pollen produced

insect pollinated- smaller amounts, larger heavier, spiky grains
wind pollinated- large amounts, small light smooth grains

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fertilizasion

when a pollen nucleus fuses with an ovum nucleus in the ovule

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micropyle

an opening in the ovule penetrated by the pollen tube

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germination

the start of growth of the seed

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conditions for germination

- water
- oxygen
- warmth