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Flashcards in 15- drugs Deck (23)
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what is a drug

Any substance taken into the body that affects chemical
reactions in the body.


social drugs

Drugs used in common that does not affect the people
health. (caffiene)


medial drugs

Drugs that are prescribed by a doctor & used to stop
infection, or to relief pain. (aspirin)



substances that kill bacteria not viruses


how do antibiotics kill bacteria

stop bacteria from making new cell walls
- inhibit the production of protein in bacterial cell, so it can not grow.
- prevent bacteria from undergoing cell division.


why dont antibiotics effect viruses

viruses dont have cell wall


how does bacteria survive

by mutating and showing variation, breed and become resistant to antibiotics, due to natural selection


how to minimize the development of resistant bacteria

1. development of new antibiotics.
2. improve cleanliness.
3. isolating infected patients.
4. have more responsible use of antibiotics.
5. improved screening to avoid spread.
6. take the entire course of antibiotics, even if you feel better.
7. avoid prescription of antibiotics for minor bacterial infection


effects of excessive alcohol consumption

1. slows down reaction time of brain, as it is depressant.
2. increase aggression and violence.
3. loss of self control.
4. liver damage [cirrhosis], where fibers grow in liver, due to excessive detoxification [breaking down toxins in liver].


symptoms of withdrawal of alcohol

Mental confusion, shaking, irritability, insomnia & anxiety.


Negative social implications for alcohol

increased risk of injuries, accidents & crimes.
Economic and financial implications.
Lost workplace productivity.
Poor coordination between family members.


effects of heroin abuse

-It is a powerful depressant, slows down the function of brain.
-Reduces pain, slows down breathing.
-Slows down the function of hypothalamus.
-Addicted people need to increase doses, as the body shows tolerance to give the same effect.


heroin withdrawal symptoms

Diarrhea, vomiting, muscular pain, shaking, hallucination, insomnia & anxiety.


negative social implications of heroin

increased risk of crimes.
Economic and financial implications.
Lost workplace productivity.
Poor coordination between family members.
Transmission of hepatitis & AIDS, due to sharing needles.


effects of nicotine

- It is an addictive, stimulant, affects the brain, makes people more alert.
- increases the heart rate & blood pressure [hypertension].
- Increases the risk of thrombosis, so if in the coronary artery of the heart, it leads to CHD [heart attack].



- Forms a black sticky layer over the alveoli walls.
- It is carcinogen, leads to lung cancer, [cells keep dividing without control & spread to other parts of the body.


carbon monoxide

Poisonous gas, reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen by combining with hemoglobin.


Emphysema disease

- It is a COPD, as the alveoli walls are damaged, so less gas exchange takes place.
-The walls are damaged due to persistent coughing as a result of mucus accumulation in the trachea.
- this is due to destroying the cilia lining the trachea, so the mucus with dirt will not be swept away from the lungs.
- People find it is difficult to get enough oxygen into their blood.
-=They can not do anything active.


pregnant smokers

Less oxygen reaches the baby, so they show underweight & less intelligent. risk of miscarriage.


passive smoking

when a non smoker breathes smoke from smokers



hormone is used to increase muscle development, it causes more protein synthesis in muscles, to be larger & stronger.


use of anabolic steroids

-stimulate anabolic reactions, that build up large
molecules from small ones.
-They help athletes to train harder for long time & increase aggression.


disadvantages of anabolic hormones

-High blood pressure, liver damage, high cholesterol level.
-Decrease immunity against pathogens.