2: Airway obstruction Flashcards Preview

ENT Week 2 2017/18 > 2: Airway obstruction > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Airway obstruction Deck (22)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the boundary between the upper and lower airways?

Vocal cords

2

What direction does the larynx move on swallowing?

Upwards THEN downwards

3

The larynx is made up of ___ and ___.

cartilages and membranes

4

What is the only complete ring in the airway?

Cricoid cartilage

doesn't expand, determines diameter of airway

5

What do the vocal cords do in

a) phonation

b) respiration?

a) Close

b) Open

6

Which muscles close the vocal cords?

Lateral crico-arytenoids

Arytenoids

7

Which muscles open the vocal cords?

Posterior arytenoid muscles

8

Neonates are obligate nasal breathers.

Why?

Larynx is raised too high (C1)

Subglottis is narrow

9

Air flow resistance is heavily dependant on ___ of the airway.

radius

10

Air flow resistance is directly proportional to what?

1 / (radius)4

So a 1 cm decrease in radius has a massive effect on air flow resistance

11

What is the difference between stridor and stertor?

Stridor - high pitched noise due to turbulent airflow

Stertor - low pitched sound for nasopharynx (snoring)

12

If you suspect a child has acute epiglottitis, what shouldn't you do?

Examine the throat

You will exacerbate inflammation and cause respiratory obstruction > arrest

13

What can become lodged in the airway causing obstruction?

Foreign bodies

14

What is an insidious cause of dyspnoea and airway obstruction?

Malignancy

15

What is the commonest type of malignancy in children?

Lymphoma

16

recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

juveline < 12

adult onset > 12

hugely destructive to larynx, requiring loads of surgery

HPV 6, 11 (papillomas) 16 and 18 (carcinomas), also cervical cancer in women

17

What can develop in a baby secondary to inflammation around a tube in the larynx?

Subglottic stenosis

ACQUIRED, CONGENITAL is extremely rare

18

What are the commonest causes of subglottic stenosis in adults?

Vasculitis - granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GWP)

GORD

19

What should you do immediately for someone with facial / neck burns?

Assess airway and INTUBATE

because subsequent swelling will make it impossible

20

How is respiratory distress managed?

ABCDE

21

What is used to examine the airway?

Laryngoscope

-tracheo

-broncho

22

Should tracheostomy be done on kids?

No

Very difficult to take back