What is the boundary between the upper and lower airways?
What direction does the larynx move on swallowing?
Upwards THEN downwards
The larynx is made up of ___ and ___.
cartilages and membranes
What is the only complete ring in the airway?
doesn't expand, determines diameter of airway
What do the vocal cords do in
Which muscles close the vocal cords?
Which muscles open the vocal cords?
Posterior arytenoid muscles
Neonates are obligate nasal breathers.
Larynx is raised too high (C1)
Subglottis is narrow
Air flow resistance is heavily dependant on ___ of the airway.
Air flow resistance is directly proportional to what?
1 / (radius)4
So a 1 cm decrease in radius has a massive effect on air flow resistance
What is the difference between stridor and stertor?
Stridor - high pitched noise due to turbulent airflow
Stertor - low pitched sound for nasopharynx (snoring)
If you suspect a child has acute epiglottitis, what shouldn't you do?
Examine the throat
You will exacerbate inflammation and cause respiratory obstruction > arrest
What can become lodged in the airway causing obstruction?
What is an insidious cause of dyspnoea and airway obstruction?
What is the commonest type of malignancy in children?
recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
juveline < 12
adult onset > 12
hugely destructive to larynx, requiring loads of surgery
HPV 6, 11 (papillomas) 16 and 18 (carcinomas), also cervical cancer in women
What can develop in a baby secondary to inflammation around a tube in the larynx?
ACQUIRED, CONGENITAL is extremely rare
What are the commonest causes of subglottic stenosis in adults?
Vasculitis - granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GWP)
What should you do immediately for someone with facial / neck burns?
Assess airway and INTUBATE
because subsequent swelling will make it impossible
How is respiratory distress managed?
What is used to examine the airway?
Should tracheostomy be done on kids?
Very difficult to take back