How is hearing tested in clinic?
Tuning fork tests
Rinne and Weber's tests
What graph is used to diagnose hearing loss?
What is a sign of conductive hearing loss on an audiogram?
Gap between air conductance and bone conductance
What is a sign of sensorineural hearing loss on an audiogram?
No gap between air/bone conductance but the whole thing has dropped
How do you manipulate an adult's ear to look at the external acoustic meatus?
Lift superiorly and posteriorly
i.e up and back
What device is used to examine the ear?
What are the three main types of deafness?
What is central hearing loss?
Damage to hearing centre in the brain
Nerves are intact
Pathology of which nerves can cause a referred otalgia?
C2 and C3
What structures should be examined in someone with otalgia?
Which ear diseases are notable for causing discharge?
Acute and chronic otitis media
CSF leaks secondary to trauma, infection etc.
What are the two types of dizziness?
What is the clinical name for dizziness?
What symptom must you ask about in a patient with vertigo?
Any hearing loss?
What is the most common cause of vertigo?
Benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV)
What is tinnitus?
Ringing in the ears
hearing your internal sounds rather than the external ones
What is otitis externa?
Infectious inflammation of the external acoustic meatus
Bacteria, viruses, fungus
What should be avoided in otitis externa?
Keep good ear hygiene
What is a possible consequence of severe otitis media?
Perforated tympanic membrane
What is otitis media with effusion also known as?
Where does fluid accumulate in otitis media with effusion?
Behind tympanic membrane
What is the definition of otitis media with effusion?
Fluid behind the tympanic membrane WITHOUT INFECTION
What causes otitis media with effusion?
Blockage of Eustachian tube
What is a Grommet tube?
Ventilation tube which allows drainage of fluid from middle to external ear
If otitis media persists for ages, what is it called?
What is a common complication?
Chronic otitis media
Perforated tympanic membrane, hearing loss
What is cholesteatoma?
Skin in the wrong place
i.e hyperproduction of keratinised squamous epithelium in the middle ear
What is a complication of cholesteatoma?
Destruction of auditory ossicles
What is a common symptom of cholesteatoma?
Seeing as it's found in the middle ear, how is cholesteatoma investigated?
CT / MRI scan
What are the symptoms of ear disease?
Loss of hearing