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ENT Week 2 2017/18 > 1: ENT trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: ENT trauma Deck (36)
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1

What is the bone most commonly broken in the body?

Nose

(Ethmoid bone and Vomer)

2

What is the usual mechanism of nasal trauma?

Fighting

Sport

Falls

3

What will be disrupted on examination if a patient has nasal trauma?

Natural angles of the nose (deviation)

4

What is the proper name for a nosebleed?

Epistaxis

5

If someone comes in with a bruised orbit, what should you palpate for?

Bony orbital trauma

6

Which nerve are you testing when you palate under the orbits for sensation?

Infraorbital nerve

branch of CN V2

7

What is a septal haematoma?

What do they feel like?

Blood within the nasal septum

Soft and boggy - important to differentiate from ?the other one

8

Why can septal haematoma lead to septal necrosis?

Lifting of perichondrium off septum - necrosis

Infection of blood left in septum - abscess - necrosis

9

What happens if septal necrosis is left untreated?

Nose collapses into face

probably a proper name for this

10

How do you manage a nasal deviation?

Manipulate it back into position under anaesthetic within 2 weeks

11

What artery commonly ruptures in nasal trauma to cause epistaxis?

Anterior ethmoidal artery

12

What can leak through the nasal cavity in significant trauma?

CSF

could lead to meningitis

13

What sense can be lost if the cribriform plate is fractured?

Smell

anosmia

14

Which area of the nose contains the arterial anastomosis which can cause epistaxis?

Where is it?

Little's area

Nasal septum

15

How is epistaxis managed?

ABCDE

squeeze sides of nose and sit forward (so you don't swallow the blood)

could also use vasoconstrictors or diathermy (cauterisation)

16

What is a rhino pack?

Balloon which can be inflated in the nose to stop epistaxis

17

CSF leaks often settle ___.

When should it be treated?

spontaneously

If it hasn't settled within 10 days

18

What part of the ethmoid bone fractures to cause a CSF leak?

Cribriform plate

19

What happens to the cartilage in septal and pinna haematoma?

Perichondrium lifted off cartilage by blood

Causes necrosis, calcification, lumpy appearance

20

What is pinna haematoma also known as?

Cauliflower ear

21

How are pinna haematomas treated?

Incised and drained

22

How are ear lacerations treated?

If bit is preserved in ice:

Debride

Reattach with sutures

give antibiotics to prevent infection

23

What are some possible symptoms following a temporal bone fracture?

Hearing loss

Vertigo

Facial paralysis

CSF leak (ear/nose)

Pain

24

What is Battle's sign?

What is it a sign of?

Bruising round the eyes or ears

Temporal bone fracture

25

What are the two types of temporal bone fracture?

Longitudinal and transverse

26

What are the three types of hearing loss?

Conductive

Sensorineural

Mixed

27

What causes conductive hearing loss?

Fluid in the ear canal

Tympanic membrane perforation

Disruption of auditory ossicles

Otosclerosis

28

Which auditory ossicle most commonly fractures to cause hearing loss?

Incus

29

What is otosclerosis?

Hardening of stapes causing it stop moving

> CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS

30

What causes sensorineural hearing loss?

Damage to CN VIII

which could be caused by damage to the cochlea