8: Stuffy nose Flashcards Preview

ENT Week 2 2017/18 > 8: Stuffy nose > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8: Stuffy nose Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

Which cytokines are released by mast cells after IgE causes their degranulation?

Histamine

Leukotrienes (interleukins)

2

What are some examples of

a) topical corticosteroids

b) anti-histamines

c) anti-cholinergics

d) decongestants

used in allergic rhinitis?

a) Beclometasone

b) Cetirizine

c) Ipratropium

d) Pseudoephedrine

Also: montelukast

3

What are the four core nasal symptoms?

Blocked nose

Discharge

Loss of smell

Facial pain

4

What are the 4 Ss of nasal symptoms?

Stuffy

Snot

Smell

Sore

5

What symptoms are seen in allergic nose disease?

Sneezing

Itch

Crusting

Epistaxis

6

What are the three steps of a nasal examination?

Examine airway patency

Examine external nose

Rhinoscopy

7

What should you ask the patient to do when you stick a scope up their nose?

Stop breathing

so the lens isn't steamed up

8

What is another name for a nasal concha?

Turbinate

9

Rhinitis can be either ___ or ___.

infective

non-infective

10

What infection commonly results in infectious rhinitis?

URTI

11

Non-infectious rhinitis is further divided into ___ and ___ rhinitis.

allergic

non-allergic

12

What are some associated symptoms that come along with allergic rhinitis?

Sneezing

Itch

Crusty eyes

Watery eyes

13

What allergens cause allergic rhinitis?

Pollen

Dust mites

Pet hair

14

What are the two timings of allergic rhinitis?

Intermittent

Persistent

15

Persistent allergic rhinitis tends to be caused by allergens in your ___.

home

dust mites, cat and dog hair

16

What terms are used to describe the severity of allergic rhinitis?

Mild

Moderate/Severe

17

How allergic rhinitis is treated depends on its ___ and ___.

timing - intermittent or persistent

severity - mild or severe

18

Which antibody mediates allergic disease?

IgE

19

What is the mainstay for relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis?

Allergen avoidance

20

Which drugs are used to treat allergic rhinitis?

Oral antihistamines

Inhaled steroids

+/- cromones, interleukin antagonists

Immunotherapy

21

What experimental treatment can be done to reduce a patient's sensitivity to allergens?

Immunotherapy

22

Why would surgery be indicated for allergic rhinitis?

Chronic inflammation leading to fibrosis and loss of airway function

23

What nose lesions are seen alongside non-allergic rhinitis?

Nasal polyps

24

How may nasal polyps be treated if they are causing airway problems?

Oral steroids

then Topical steroids

then Surgery

25

What are the symptoms of infectious rhinosinusitis?

Blocked nose

Discharge - yellow/green

Facial pain

26

What causes the vast majority of infectious rhinosinusitis?

Viruses

27

How is infectious rhinosinusitis treated?

Supportive - analgesia and decongestion

Add antibiotic if persistent

28

What are some serious complications of infectious rhinosinusitis?

Cavernous sinus compression

Orbital cellulitis

Meningitis

Rheumatic fever

29

How is non-allergic, non-infective rhinitis treated?

Anti-muscarinics e.g ipratropium

30

How is allergic rhinitis investigated?

Skin PRICK test (Type I hypersensitivity)

RAST (picks up specific IgE levels)