5: Head and neck cancer Flashcards Preview

ENT Week 2 2017/18 > 5: Head and neck cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5: Head and neck cancer Deck (26)
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1

What are the big risk factors for head and neck cancers?

Smoking

Alcohol

Viruses (HPV)

2

Which strains of HPV cause papillomas and carcinomas?

Papillomas - HPV 6 and 11

Carcinomas - HPV 16 and 18

3

Young people tend to develop head and neck cancers due to ___.

viral infection

HPV - oral sex

4

What virus is linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

Epstein Barr virus (EBV)

5

Where do oral cancers tend to arise?

Buccal mucosa

Lateral borders of tongue

6

What should you do if you find a dodgy lesion on oral examination?

Feel it

7

How do

a) benign

b) malignant

oral lesions feel?

a) Soft

b) Firm

8

What would you find on neck examination of someone with ENT cancer?

Enlarged lymph nodes

Thyroid lumps (which move up and down)

9

What is used to look into the pharynx and larynx?

Endoscope

10

How are biopsies taken from ENT tumours?

FNA

11

Apart from endoscopy and biopsies, what other investigations are done for head and neck cancers?

Ultrasound

X-ray

MRI

CT

12

Are blood tests done for head and neck cancers?

No

not many markers for these cancers

13

Which scan is used for bony cancers?

Which scan is used for soft tissue cancers?

CT (hard)

MRI (soft)

14

Why are CXRs commonly done in addition to investigations for head and neck cancers?

Risk factors for ENT / lung cancers are the same

So chances are they have primary / secondary lung cancers as well

15

How are head and neck cancers managed?

MDT

16

What is the most common form of ENT cancer?

Squamous cell carcinoma

because the cavities are lined by squamous epithelium

17

Does hoarseness automatically mean a glottic tumour?

No

18

Which cranial nerve is disrupted to cause hoarseness?

What are some possible causes?

CN X

Disruption to recurrent laryngeal nerve, so lung problems and aortic aneurysm

19

Apart from CN X, which other cranial nerve can be damaged by ENT cancers?

CN VII

20

Which lymph node becomes enlarged in a variety of different, diffuse cancers?

Virchow's node

Left supraclavicular node

21

Why might a patient become hypocalaemic following ENT surgery?

Removal of parathyroid glands

i.e glands can be gammied by cancer surgery

22

What is the difference between wheeze and stridor?

Wheeze is EXPIRATORY, deep, best heard over the lung bases

STRIDOR is INSPIRATORY, high pitched, comes from the upper airways

(Stertor is the preceding sound)

23

What may be compromised in ENT cancers?

Airway

24

Why may a patient with ENT cancer experience dysphagia?

Compression of oesophagus

25

Why is it important for cancer patients to see the same doctor on each visit?

Continuity of care - trust

Confidentiality

26

If a relative asks to discuss a patient's condition, what do you need?

Patient's consent